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Commercial Truck Insurance Florida

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida Quotes. Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Requirements: Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers: Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Agents, Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Companies.

 

Truck Insurance Florida

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida


Transportation Coverage Options

Truckers Insurance Florida This is an example of the types of truckers insurance we offer. We cover many more types. Just contact us to get started today
  • Auto or Boat Hauling
  • Dry Van or Box
  • Dump Truck Insurance Florida
  • Farm to Market
  • Fruit & Produce Hauler
  • Intermodal
  • Log Trucks
  • Movers Household Goods / Office
  • Salvage Haulers
  • Drive Away Contractors
  • Dump Trucks
  • Flatbed Operations
  • Gasoline & Fuel Transporter
  • Livestock
  • Mobile Home Toters
  • Non Trucking Liability
  • Wholesalers & Manufacturers
  • Fleet Operations
  • Owner Operators
  • AND MORE > Contact us for details
Truckers Insurance Florida Truck Insurance Florida Motor Truck Cargo When your products are being shipped from manufacturer to marketplace, it is important to ensure they are fully protected from departure to arrival. Cargo insurance provides financial assistance should cargo be damaged or lost when travelling by land, sea or air. It can also limit a commercial operation’s exposure to liability resulting from the shipment of products. Coverage Details and Features
  • Flexible limits to meet all needs
  • Package and monoline policies available
  • Refrigeration coverage
  • Breakdown coverage
  • Loading and unloading
  • Rigging exposures
  • Interstate and intrastate filings available
  • Nationwide coverage available
  • Coverage for household goods movers
Truckers Insurance Florida Truck Insurance Florida General Laibility On average there are over 10 million motor vehicle accidents in the US every year. The damages caused by these accidents cost upwards of $230 billion annually, or an average of $820 per person. Without the proper insurance in place, your clients can be exposed to costly repairs and litigation fees if involved in an accident. Excess Auto Coverage protects your clients against financial loss resulting from legal liability for automobile-related injuries to others or damage to property. Auto Liability Coverage has flexible limits to satisfy all needs and provides the additional primary liability necessary to meet the minimum attachment point for personal umbrella policies. Coverage Details and Features
  • Physical damage
  • General liability
Truckers Insurance Florida On Hook Tow Truck Insurance Florida Tow truck drivers are responsible for moving damaged or stalled vehicles safely and securely without causing any additional damage. If a customer’s vehicle is damaged by a collision, fire, theft, explosion or vandalism while under tow, towing operators can be held liable for replacement and repair costs. To protect operations, towing companies need the proper insurance to limit the exposures associated with hauling vehicles owned by customers or another party. On-Hook coverage provides coverage for your auto service clients who tow or haul vehicles. As a leading provider of wholesale insurance, we has the expertise and knowledge to help you design coverage specific to the unique exposures of the auto services industry.
Truckers Insurance Florida Truck Insurance Florida Physical Damage Generally physical damage to an automobile results from colliding with another object or the overturning of the vehicle. However, fire, explosion, theft, vandalism, malicious mischief, windstorm, hail, earthquake or floods can also cause physical damage to commercial vehicles. To limit the exposure to costly repairs, physical damage insurance can be tailored by specific peril or named peril coverage. Coverage Details and Features Details
  • Can handle a large range of accounts
  • Monoline or stand-alone policies available
  • Flexible deductibles
  • Combined deductibles available on packages
  • Packages Available with Motor Truck Cargo and/or Auto Liability
  • Reporting form options available for larger accounts
  • In select cases, interest free payment plans available
  • Admitted and non-admitted policies available
  • Coverage varies by risk and need
Additional coverages available with select carriers
  • Downtime loss of expense coverage
  • Electronic equipment coverage
  • Loan or lease gap coverage
  • Towing coverage options available
  • Diminishing deductible
  • Personal effect coverage
  • On board expendable supplies
Target Classes (including but not limited to)
  • For Hire Truckers
  • Not For Hire Truckers
  • 100 Mile Radius Truckers
  • 300 Mile Radius Truckers
  • 500 Mile Radius Truckers
  • Unlimited Mile Radius Truckers
  • Long Haul Trucking Operations
  • Intermediate Trucking Operations
  • Specialty Classes Select Commercial Auto Fleets For Hire Truckers Not For Hire Truckers 100 Mile Radius Truckers 300 Mile Radius Truckers 500 Mile Radius Truckers Unlimited Mile Radius Truckers Long Haul Trucking Operations Intermediate Trucking Operations Local Trucking Operations
  • Bobtail
  • Non-Trucking
  • Grain Haulers
  • Agricultural Products (Grains, Produce, General Farm Freight)
  • Farm Equipment
  • Farm Vehicles
  • Fertilizer (Bagged, Bulk, Liquid)
  • Horse Haulers
  • Livestock Haulers
  • Milk Haulers
  • Lumber Haulers
  • Logging Trucks
  • LPG Haulers
  • Lumber Yards
  • Wood Chip Delivery
  • Produce Haulers
  • Pulp Wood
  • Dirt, Rock, Sand, Or Gravel
  • General Aggregate Products
  • Hay Haulers
  • Asphalt And Paving
  • Cement Or Ready Mix
  • Contaminated Dirt Or Dirty Dirt
  • Contractors’ Equipment
  • Construction Equipment
  • Heavy Equipment
  • Machinery
  • Heavy Haul
  • Building Supplies
  • Pre-Fabricated Buildings
  • Pre-Fabricated Concrete
  • Ready Mix Operations
  • Pallet Haulers
  • Pipe Haulers
  • Food Delivery
  • Wholesale Food Distribution
  • Dry Food Products
  • Refrigerated Products
  • Dry Freight
  • Milk Haulers
  • Liquid Food Products
  • Seafood Delivery
  • Crude Oil Haulers
  • Water Haulers (Including Fracking)
  • Contaminated Dirt Or Dirty Dirt
  • Diesel Fuel Hauler
  • Gasoline Hauler
  • Chemical Haulers
  • Jet Fuel Haulers
  • Coal Haulers
  • Butane Hauler
  • Propane Hauler
  • Fertilizer (Bagged, Bulk, Liquid)
  • Fracking Liquids
  • Hazardous Waste Haulers
  • Home Heating Oil
  • Fuel Haulers
  • Garbage Haulers
  • Waste Oil
  • Waste Disposal
  • Tank Trucks
  • Recycled Grease Or Oil
  • Recyclables
  • Oil Filled Equipment Haulers
  • Scrap Metal
  • Lab Waste Haulers
  • Medical Waste Haulers
  • Bio Hazard Haulers
  • Medical Equipment Haulers
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Auto Transport
  • Auto Parts Haulers
  • Boats
  • Car Carriers
  • Motorcycles, Mopeds, Scooter Haulers
  • Mobile Home Totter
  • Container Haulers
  • Containerized Freight
  • Dump Truck Operations
  • Explosive Hauler
  • Furniture Delivery
  • Household Goods Movers
  • Hazardous Goods
  • House Movers
  • Bulk Liquid Haulers
  • Metal Dealers
  • Metal Transporters
  • Mining Equipment
  • Office Equipment Haulers
  • Paper Products
  • Retail Delivery
  • Steel Haulers
  • UIIA Hauler
  • Wholesale Delivery
Physical Damage Insurance provides coverage for large fleets to small vehicles. As a leading provider of wholesale insurance, we can provide access to unique coverage tailored to the needs of each of your clients to protect them from financial damages resulting from claims related to their business operations
Truckers Insurance Florida With nearly 3.5 million professional truck drivers on the road in the United States, it is essential that the right insurance coverage is in place. For your long-haul or for-hire trucker clients, their career on the road exposes their vehicles to risk of costly damage or repairs. Truckers General Liability insurance covers accidents in parking lots, rest stops, and while loading or unloading. It can also cover risks like theft and vandalism. Truckers General Liability Coverage can provide access to coverage for businesses whose operations involve the transportation of goods. Our specialty insurance experts  Transportation Center of Excellence can help underwrite the difficult-to-place transportation risks including long-haul trucking accounts.

Coverage Details and Features

Details

  • Available coverages vary by class
  • Stop Gap coverage
  • Employee Benefits coverage
  • Coverage extension for Loading and Unloading
  • Mis-delivery of products coverage
  • Blanket additional insured
  • Waiver of subrogation

Features

  • Monoline policies available
  • Package policies available
  • Excess layers available
  • Composite rate available for select accounts
  • Admitted and non-admitted policies available

Target Classes

(including but not limited to)
  • Flatbeds
  • Dump Trucks
  • Tank Trucks
  • Refrigerated Trucks
  • Dry Vans
  • Containerized Freight

Truckers Insurance Florida

Coverage Details and Features

  • Auto Liability Coverage
  • Auto Physical Damage
  • Motor Truck Cargo
  • General Liability
  • Excess Liability
  • $1,000,000 limit - excess coverage upon request
  • No limit for cargo
(including but not limited to)
  • Asphalt Haulers
  • Dirt Haulers
  • Contaminated Dirt Haulers
  • Sand Haulers
  • Gravel Haulers
  • Coal Haulers
  • Scrap Metal Haulers
  • Grain Haulers
  • All Aggregate Products
  • Landscaping Excavating Services
  • For-Hire Operations
  • Local Radius Operations (0 - 300 Miles)
  • Non-Fleet Or Fleet Risks
Truckers Insurance Florida Truck Insurance Small Fleets Large Fleets Owner Operator Coverage Details and Features Features
  • Diminishing/Combined deductibles
  • Broad Form Pollution
  • Reporting Form/Composite Rate Options
  • Downtime Expense Coverage
  • Towing
  • Gap coverage
Available Coverages
  • Automobile Liability Coverage
  • Uninsured/Underinsured Motorists
  • Medical Payments
  • Personal Injury Protection
  • Physical Damage Coverage
  • Commercial Inland Marine
  • Hired and Non-Owned
  • Excess Umbrella
  • General Liability
  • Non-Trucking/Bobtail
  • Contingent Cargo
  • On-Hook/In-Tow Coverage
Target Classes (including but not limited to)
  • Non-Fleet Or Fleet Risks
  • Not-Hire/Private/Exempt/Non-Exempt Carriers
  • Local Radius
  • Intermediate Radius
  • Long Haul Radius
  • Dry Van/General Commodities
  • Refrigeration Breakdown
  • Flatbed
  • Tanker
  • Oversize/Overweight
  • Auto Haulers
  • Dump Risks
  • Household Goods Movers
  • Tow Trucks/Wreckers
  • Hazmat
Truckers Insurance Florida Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Liability Requirements The minimum amount of primary liability insurance is set by the FMSCA. For trucks over 10,000 pounds GVWR you’ll need to the following minimums:
  • $750,000–  Most trucks hauling most commodities are required to have a minimum of $750,000 of coverage. Many load brokers will require a minimum of $1,000,000.
  •  $1,000,000– Auto haulers need a minimum of $1,000,000 in coverage. One million in coverage is becoming an industry standard across other hauled commodities too.
  • $5,000,000– If you are hauling certain hazardous materials, you’ll need a minimum of $5,000,000 in coverage.
Truckers Insurance Florida Truck Insurance Florida Federal Filings
  • Interstate trucking
  • Hauling hazardous cargo (placard)
  • For-hire trucking (common, contract)
  • For-hire passenger transportation
Truckers Insurance Florida Freight forwarders and Freight Agencies Insurance Description of operations: Freight forwarders and freight agencies organize the shipment of freight from its initial pickup at the shipper's location through final delivery at the receiver's location. Transportation of the cargo from point to point can include various modes of transportation such as trucks, railroads, aircraft and watercraft, with warehousing at some point along the route. Freight forwarders may combine shipments from several customers into one. Services may be limited to domestic shipments or include international operations.
Truckers Insurance Florida Truck Insurance Florida Garbage Collectors Description of operations: Garbage collectors pick up trash from residential and/or commercial customers along established routes and transport it to an approved landfill. Some operate under a contract with a municipality where the municipality provides the vehicles and the collection firm supplies the labor, including supervision. Some contract with businesses and residents or a governmental entity, and use their own employees and vehicles to deposit trash at a landfill owned by others. Still others provide complete services for municipalities, including vehicles, personnel and landfill operations. This narrative does not discuss landfill operations.
Truckers Insurance Florida Moving Company Insurance Florida Description of operations: Furniture movers are trucking operations that transport furniture and household goods from the initial loading and pickup at the customer's old premises to final delivery and unloading at their new premises. Most furniture movers assist in the packing and unpacking for customers who are relocating. Many have warehouse facilities for both temporary and long-term storage of goods. Furniture movers may be local or operate on a regional or national basis.
Truckers Insurance Florida Description of operations: Truckers transport cargo from its initial loading and pickup at the shipper's location to final delivery and unloading at the receiver's location. The cargo can include raw materials, work in process, and finished goods. The trucker may assist customers in the packing and unpacking of freight. Many trucking companies have warehouse facilities for both temporary and long-term storage of customers' goods. While some truckers transport freight to the same destinations over and over, others transport single shipments to a particular destination. The trucking industry is regulated by a number of federal agencies.
Truckers Insurance Florida Although sometimes used interchangeably, Primary Liability Insurance is different. Primary Liability covers damage done by your truck or vehicle. General Liability Insurance protects your business from litigation arising from various other circumstances in the course of day-to-day operation. General Liability Insurance covers your business in the event of damage being caused by day-day-operations and if your company is taken to court for any kind of liability. Primary Liability Insurance covers the damages to people or property caused directly by your truck/s. If you cause an accident that injures or even kills another person, the bodily injury portion of your Primary Liability Insurance will pay for the related expenses. If you cause an accident that damages another person’s property, the property damage portion of your Primary Liability Insurance will pay for those expenses.
Truckers Insurance Florida A term coined to apply to auto liability coverage for an owner/operator after a load has been delivered and while the truck is not being used for trucking purposes. This usually occurs when an owner/operator is operating his or her vehicle for mobility only (e.g., on the way home), and not in the course of transporting property for the motor carrier under whose operating authority they haul, and on whose liability policy they depend while they are engaged in trucking. The method of providing what is known as bobtail liability is a business auto policy (BAP) with the Truckers—Insurance for Non-Trucking Use endorsement (CA 23 09) attached source: irmi.com
Truckers Insurance Florida FMCSA or the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Adminstration only requires $750,000. However, most shippers and brokers require $1,000,000 to load your truck. It is a good idea to check with those you will hauling for to confirm their requirements. Then the most common request is $100,00 for cargo.

General Freight Commercial Truck Insurance Florida

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida


Trucking General Freight

Truckers Insurance Florida

Facilities

The typical general freight trucking establishment will have a terminal facility/facilities that includes offices, docks, temporary storage, and maintenance areas.

Services

General freight establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized, and transported in a container, trailer, straight truck, or delivery vehicle. Commodities transported may include hazardous and high-value materials. The establishments in this industry group may provide a combination of the following activities: local pickup, over-the-road transport, break-bulk, (break-bulk is a terminal where freight is broken down from an "over-the-road" unit for local delivery, or for loading onto another "over-the-road" unit for further delivery) and local delivery.

Local trucking establishments primarily carry goods within a single metropolitan area and its adjacent non-urban areas. Long-distance trucking establishments usually provide trucking between metropolitan areas, which may cross North American country borders. Included in this industry are establishments operating as truckload (TL) or less than truckload (LTL) carriers.

Specialized freight trucking, which, because of the freight's size, weight, shape, or other inherent characteristics, requires specialized equipment, such as flatbeds, tankers, or refrigerated trailers, will not be specifically covered in this report. While businesses that provide transportation of their own products are also not specifically covered, many of the areas of this report will address exposures to these businesses as well. Owner-operators (drivers who operate their own truck) are only addressed in the context of the broader trucking-business operation.

When transporting merchandise, the motor carrier is responsible for all activity from the time the shipment has been picked up until the product has been delivered and accepted by the customer. Drivers need to be carefully trained in the delivery process to assure that no damage results to the product or premises during the delivery operation.

Personnel

Truck driving has become less physically demanding as newer trucks have more comfortable seats, better ventilation, and improved, ergonomically-designed cabs. Although these changes make the work environment more attractive, driving for many hours at a stretch and unloading cargo can be tiring. Local truck drivers, unlike long-distance drivers, typically return home in the evening. Over-the-road drivers may be on the road for days to weeks at a time. Some companies use two drivers on very long runs - one drives while the other sleeps in a sleeper berth behind the cab. "Sleeper" runs may last for days, or even weeks, usually with the truck stopping only for fuel, food, loading, and unloading.

Local delivery truck drivers usually unload the merchandise transported. They may have helpers if there are many deliveries to make during the day, or if the load is heavy or bulky. Typically, material handlers load the trucks and arrange items to improve delivery efficiency. Customers must sign receipts for goods. At the end of the day, drivers turn in receipts, records of deliveries made, and any reports on mechanical problems with their trucks.

The driver's responsibilities and assignments change according to the time spent on the road, the type of payloads transported, and vehicle size. From a loss control perspective, it is critical that all drivers be carefully selected and trained, provided with well-maintained vehicles, and are dispatched within reasonable hours-of-service to reduce fatigue.

Equipment

Vehicles used in local delivery operations can be of any size depending on the commodity being transported. The majority of vehicles will typically be small straight trucks or vans with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) under 26,000 lb (kg). Vehicles used in long-haul operations are typically tractor semi-trailers or longer combination vehicles where multiple trailers are pulled by a single tractor.

Materials handling equipment are typically needed to load/unload products from the vehicle. Requirements will vary depending upon the size of the operation and the commodity being handled. Common materials handling devices include conveyor belts, drag lines, hand-trucks, pallet jacks, and powered industrial trucks.

Additional Information

Trucking dominates the freight transportation industry, accounting for more than two-thirds of tonnage, according to the American Trucking Association. In addition, while there are many large publicly traded trucking companies, including UPS and J.B. Hunt Transport Services, nearly half of the top 50 trucking companies are private, according to S.J. Consulting Group Inc.

Truckers Insurance Florida Commercial Truckers Exposure Assessment

The commercial vehicle exposures of a general freight trucking company are vehicle crashes and property damage incidental to the delivery of cargo, vehicle crashes incidental to the operation of the business (e.g., sales and banking), as well as theft and vandalism of vehicles. The degree of exposure can vary widely depending on the size and area of operation of the business and the commodities transported. The following areas need to be reviewed to provide a comprehensive exposure assessment:

Management

q  Is there a written safety policy that includes a directive on the safe operation of vehicles?

q  Are applicable identification credentials obtained and vehicles properly marked to comply with federal or state regulations?

q  Is a policy in place requiring that all occupants be secured in a seat belt when the vehicle is in motion?

q  Is there a written policy addressing the consumption of alcohol and illegal substances by all drivers?

q  If state lines are crossed during normal operations, is the business aware of the responsibilities they may be required to meet under the U. S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR)?

q  Do employees use their personal vehicles for business purposes?

q  If employees are allowed to use company-owned vehicles for personal use, are limitations in place as to who may drive the vehicle and the radius of operation?

Operations

q  Are vehicles and trailers selected to meet the requirements of the commodities to be shipped?

q  Is cargo properly secured on vehicles?

q  Is routing planned to avoid high-hazard or restricted areas?

q  Are drivers instructed on proper delivery techniques?

q  During non-business hours, are vehicles kept in a secure location with adequate key control?

q  Where hazardous materials are transported, is the motor carrier in compliance with the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR)?

q  Where hazardous materials are transported, are shipping papers properly prepared and vehicles placarded as necessary?

Driver Qualification

q  Are drivers properly licensed for the type(s) of vehicle(s) they will operate?

q  Is the operation of vehicles restricted to qualified drivers?

q  Is a driver's state Motor Vehicle Record obtained when first hired and periodically updated and reviewed?

q  Are reference checks performed on prospective drivers?

q  Do driver reference checks include information on past driving history?

q  Are driver-applicants tested to determine if there are any deficiencies in driving skills and to evaluate defensive-driving techniques.

q  Are drivers physically qualified to meet job requirements, in addition to driving?

q  Are CDL drivers included in a DOT-required drug-testing program?

q  Are driver qualification/personnel files maintained?

Driver Training

q  Are drivers provided the necessary training to drive and work safely?

q  Are drivers instructed on how, as well as provided with the equipment (e.g., tie-downs), to properly secure cargo on vehicles?

q  Are drivers trained, as necessary, in compliance with the FMCSR?

q  Are drivers trained, as necessary, in compliance with the HMR?

q  Are drivers instructed in proper "delivery" techniques for off-loading products?

q  Are drivers trained on how to properly inspect the vehicle they will be operating?

q  Are drivers instructed to only use communications devices (e.g., cellular phones) when their vehicles are stopped?

q  Are drivers instructed to lock vehicles and activate the alarm system, if provided, when vehicles are unattended?

q  Are records of driver training documented in the driver's qualification/personnel file?

Driver Supervision

q  Is vehicle routing planned to avoid problem areas, such as roads with restricted weight or low overhead clearances?

q  Are drivers' work schedules adjusted to limit fatigue and provide for the safe operation of vehicles?

q  Are motor carriers required to comply with the FMCSR's driver's hours-of-service requirements?

q  Are monitoring systems in place to verify proper operation of the vehicle?

Emergency Equipment

q  Are vehicles supplied with emergency equipment (e.g., a fire extinguisher)?

q  Are drivers trained in how to use emergency equipment that is provided?

Vehicle Maintenance and Inspection

q  Are company vehicles properly maintained?

q  Are drivers required to inspect vehicles before operation, and, where required, are post-operation driver vehicle inspection reports prepared?

q  Are up-to-date maintenance records maintained?

Accident Reporting, Recording, and Analysis

q  Are drivers trained on what to do at the scene of an accident?

q  Does management record and analyze each accident to help prevent future occurrences?

q  Does the motor carrier maintain an accident register?

Truckers Insurance Florida Commercial Truckers Exposure Controls

General freight trucking operations have a significant exposure to losses from vehicle crashes, including crashes involving sales and other business-support functions. A risk control program to address the commercial vehicle exposures of the business should include the following areas: management; operations; driver qualification, training and supervision; emergency equipment; vehicle maintenance and inspection; and accident reporting, recording, and analysis.

Management

Safety Policy - It is essential that drivers be instructed that the safe operation of vehicles is very important. This directive commonly takes the form of a safety policy that states management's concern with safe operations. The safety policy should be signed by senior management and copies provided to employees who operate vehicles for the company. All personnel should be held accountable for deviations in safe practices. As management sets the example for their employees, it is imperative that they adhere to the safety policy at all times.

For further information on establishing a safety policy, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-10-04, Safety Policy.

Motor Carrier Identification and Vehicle Marking - Motor carriers conducting operations in interstate commerce are required to file a Motor Carrier Identification Report (MCS-150) before they begin operations, and must update that information every 24 months. Many states have adopted similar regulations for their intrastate operations. Interstate motor carriers, and most intrastate carriers, must mark their vehicles with specific information to identify the motor carrier.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-15-01, Motor Carrier Identification and Vehicle Marking.

Driving - Management should insist that the driver and all passengers be secured in a seatbelt whenever a vehicle is in motion. Drivers taking medications should be aware of their side effects and decline to drive a vehicle if they have any concerns about adverse reactions to the medication. Drivers should also take steps to minimize distractions while driving. The use of cellular phones and other communication devices should be prohibited when the vehicle is in motion, except in emergencies.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-25-05, Driver Distraction.

Substance Abuse - The consumption of alcohol should be prohibited for drivers anytime during working hours and for four hours prior to driving. The policy should also prohibit the use of illegal controlled substances.

Interstate Operations - Where vehicles cross state lines, for vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,001 lb (4,537 kg) or more, the motor carrier is required to comply with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR) 49 CFR Parts 390 through 397 of the Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).

Employee Vehicles - Even when employees are using their own vehicles to perform business activities, such as going to the post office, management should be concerned about their driving skills. An up-to-date copy of "proof of insurance" for the employee's vehicle, preferably with the liability limits of the policy, should be kept on file in the event an accident occurs.

Personal Use of Vehicles - Management may allow employees to use company-owned vehicles for personal activities. If this is allowed, the business should have specific rules on who is allowed to operate the vehicle and the acceptable radius of operation.

For further information, see Client Handout CH-10-14, Personal Use of Company-Owned/Leased Vehicles.

Operations

Vehicles and Trailers – Vehicles and trailers should be selected to meet the business' needs. In determining the trailer's capacity, the loads (i.e., weight of the cargo) that will be placed on the trailer need to be considered. Securement devices also need to be evaluated to assure that they can handle the expected loads. Another major factor to consider is the ability of vehicles to tow a trailer. Hitches should provide adequate weight distribution and trailer support and be rated to handle the trailer's maximum loaded weight. Drivers should be trained to check that a trailer is properly hitched before moving the vehicle and that all connections between the towing vehicle and trailer have been correctly made.

Any load or component that extends more than 4 in (10.2 cm) beyond the sides or more than 4 ft (1.2 m) beyond the rear of the vehicle needs to have the extremities of the load marked with a red flag, not less than 12 in2 (77.4 cm2), at each point where a lighting device is required.

Cargo Securement - Securement devices on vehicles should be adequate to ensure that the cargo does not become loose and shift or disengage from the vehicle. Vehicle structures (e.g., tie-down anchor points), systems, parts, and components used to secure cargo should be in proper working order. Tie-down and securing devices should not contain knots. Drivers should ensure that all cargo is properly secured before starting a trip, as well as checking the load during the trip, to ensure that all securement devices are adjusted correctly to prevent the load from shifting.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-50-18, Cargo Securement.

Routing - The operation of vehicles should be well-controlled to minimize the likelihood of crashes. Drivers may be going to unfamiliar areas with increased risks, such as low overhead clearances, overhead wires, and vehicle weight restrictions, as well as backing their vehicle in congested areas. In residential areas, there is increased risk because of children playing and increased numbers of pedestrians in the area, as well as roadway design restrictions.

Delivery - Unloading operations may necessitate that the vehicle be parked in other than ideal locations. Drivers should be instructed to activate hazard warning signal lights and take any other reasonable means to make the vehicle more visible and to alert other drivers of the potential hazard. Parking in low visibility locations, such as past the crest of a hill, should be prohibited. Unloading should be carefully done to avoid injuring bystanders or damaging property. Where the vehicle needs to be backed up to the unloading site, drivers should enlist the aid of ‘spotters.'

Security - To prevent theft, vehicles should be locked when unoccupied and alarm systems, if provided, activated. Keys to vehicles should be controlled and in a secure location, and adequate lighting and other crime prevention precautions should be taken at the motor carrier's facility.

Hazardous Material - Motor carriers that transport hazardous materials (HAZMAT) must comply with the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) 49 CFR parts 171 through 180. Interstate motor carriers subject to the HMR also must comply with the FMCSR. In addition, most states have adopted a version of the FMCSR for the intrastate transportation of hazardous materials.

When transporting HAZMAT, shippers are required to prepare shipping papers following specific guidelines. A shipper of a hazardous material must certify that the material offered for transportation complies with the HMR. Motor carriers transporting these materials are required to verify that the shipping papers have been prepared correctly and to carry a copy of them on the vehicle.

The HMR require that each person offering a motor carrier a hazardous material, for transportation by highway, provide the motor carrier with the required placards for the material being transported, unless the vehicle is already correctly placarded. While it is the responsibility of the shipper to provide the placards, the HMR require the motor carrier to assure that the required placards are affixed to the vehicle before transit.

The placards, which are required to meet exact specifications for size and shape, must be placed on each side and each end of a transport vehicle, bulk packaging, or freight container. The required placarding of the front of a motor vehicle may be on the front of a truck-tractor instead of, or in addition to, the placarding on the front of the cargo body. The placards must be securely affixed, be unobscured, be located away from any marking (such as advertising) that could reduce their effectiveness, and be maintained by the motor carrier so that the format, legibility, color, and visibility of the placard will not be substantially reduced due to damage, deterioration, or obscurement by dirt or other matter.

A driver hauling HAZMAT must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the beginning of each trip and each time the vehicle is parked. If a tire is found to be flat, leaking, or improperly inflated, the driver must get the tire repaired, replaced, or properly inflated before the vehicle is driven; however, the vehicle may be driven to the nearest safe place to perform the required repair, replacement, or inflation. If a tire is found to be overheated, the driver must immediately have the overheated tire removed and placed at a safe distance from the vehicle. The driver cannot operate the vehicle until the cause of the overheating is corrected.

No person may smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar, or pipe on or within 25 ft (7.5 m) of a motor vehicle that contains Class 1 materials, Class 5 materials, or flammable materials classified as Division 2.1, Class 3, and Divisions 4.1 and 4.2.

A motor vehicle that contains HAZMAT, other than Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 materials (Explosives), and which is located on a public street or highway, or the shoulder of a public highway, must be attended by its driver. However, the vehicle need not be attended while its driver is performing duties that are incidental and necessary to the driver's duties as the operator of the vehicle. A motor vehicle is considered attended when the person in charge of the vehicle is on the vehicle, awake, and not in a sleeper berth, or is within 100 ft (30.5 m) of the vehicle and has it within his/her unobstructed field of view. The purpose of the attendance requirement is to ensure that motor vehicles containing HAZMAT are attended at all times and that, in the event of an emergency involving the motor vehicle, the attendant is able to respond immediately. The use of video monitors could satisfy the attendance requirements provided the monitors are operable and continuously manned, the attendant is within 100 ft (30.5 m) of the parked vehicle with an unobstructed view, and the attendant is able to go to the vehicle immediately from the monitoring location.

A motor vehicle that contains HAZMAT, other than Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 materials, must not be parked on or within 5 ft (1.5 m) of the traveled portion of public street or highway except for brief periods when the necessities of operation require the vehicle to be parked and make it impracticable to park the vehicle in any other place.

Driver Qualification

Establishing Policy - The establishment of a meaningful and realistic driver qualification program is vitally important to the safe operation of vehicles. Management should determine exactly what tasks will be required of the employee, how they will be accomplished, and what skills are required. Businesses that operate vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) over 10,000 lb (4,536 kg), between states (including intrastate movement of interstate transportation), are also subject to the requirements of the FMCSR.

Driver Licensing - The type and size of the vehicles operated will determine the type of driver's license required by operators. While states regulate the minimum licensing requirements of all drivers, drivers of vehicles that have a GVWR greater than 26,000 lb (11,793 kg); a gross combination weight rating (GCWR) greater than 26,000 lb (11,793 kg), inclusive of a towed unit with a GVWR of more than 10,000 lb (4,536 kg); or transport hazardous materials in a quantity that requires the vehicle to be placarded must have a Commercial Driver's License (CDL). Under the CDL program, a driver must hold a single license from his/her state of domicile and the state issuing the license must maintain a single Motor Vehicle Record (MVR) on the driver.

Drivers who operate special types of commercial motor vehicles (CMV) also need to pass additional tests to obtain an endorsement on their CDL, such as T - Double/Triple Trailers and H - Hazardous Materials. If a driver either fails the air brake component of the general CDL knowledge test or performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the driver is issued an air brake restriction, restricting the driver from operating a CMV equipped with air brakes.

Driver History - A driver's application for employment should require information on driving history. A copy of the applicant's MVR should be obtained from each state where a driver holds a license to ascertain that the applicant has a valid license and to review the driver's past record. While a driver who is required to have a CDL can only be licensed in one state, other drivers will sometimes obtain multiple state licenses to spread violations. A history of accidents and moving traffic violations could indicate a major problem with an applicant.

A MVR also should be obtained periodically for each driver and reviewed to determine whether remedial training is necessary. This review may give the supervisor insight as to the driver's attitude regarding traffic rules and regulations.

Motor carriers subject to the FMCSR must make an inquiry into the driver's driving record during the preceding three years to the appropriate agency of every state in which the driver held a motor vehicle operator's license or permit during those three years. The inquiry to state agencies must be made within 30 days of the date the driver's employment begins. Carriers also must make an annual inquiry into the driving record of each driver it employs, covering at least the preceding 12 months, to the appropriate agency of every state in which the driver held a CMV operator's license or permit during the time period. In addition to the annual review of the state(s) driving record, at least once every 12 months, each motor carrier must require each driver it employs to prepare and furnish it with a list of all violations of motor vehicle traffic laws and ordinances. See Driver Qualification File below for additional information.

Reference Checks - Reference checks should be performed to help determine the ability and experience of the prospective employee in the operation of vehicles. Information obtained should include the types of vehicles operated and the frequency of operation.

Motor carriers subject to the FMCSR, that hire drivers who were employed by a DOT-regulated employer to operate a CMV, must conduct an investigation of the driver's safety performance history, for the preceding three years, within 30 days of the date a driver's employment begins. The investigation may consist of personal interviews, telephone interviews, letters, or any other method of obtaining information that the carrier deems appropriate.

The prospective motor carrier must investigate, at a minimum:

•        General driver identification and employment verification information.

•        Accident history, including all the data elements required in the motor carrier's accident register.

•        Where the driver was required to comply with the DOT's alcohol and controlled substances testing program, whether within the previous three years, the driver had violated the alcohol and controlled substances prohibitions, failed to undertake or complete a substance abuse professional (SAP) prescribed rehabilitation program (if the previous employer doesn't know, the prospective motor carrier must obtain documentation from the driver), or, if completed, had a subsequent alcohol or controlled substance testing violation.

A prospective employer must provide the previous employer a written consent form from the driver to release the alcohol and controlled substance information (i.e., a statement signed by the employee that he or she agrees to the release of a particular piece of information to a particular, explicitly identified person or organization at a particular time). "Blanket releases," in which an employee agrees to a release of a category of information (e.g., all test results), are prohibited. Should the driver refuse to provide consent, the prospective motor carrier cannot allow the driver to operate a CMV.

Each motor carrier must maintain a written record with respect to each past employer who was contacted, or good faith efforts to do so. The record must include the past employer's name and address, the date the previous employer was contacted, or the attempts made, and the information received about the driver. Failure to contact a previous employer, or failure of them to provide the required safety performance history information, must be documented. For drivers who have had no previous employment with a DOT-regulated carrier, documentation that no investigation was possible must be placed in the driver history investigation file.

Previous DOT-regulated employers must respond to the safety performance history information requests within 30 days after the request is received. If there is no safety performance history information to report, the previous motor carrier is required to send a response confirming the non-existence of data and identification information and dates of employment of the driver. Previous employers are required to take all reasonable precautions to ensure the accuracy of the driver's records, provide specific contact information in the event a driver chooses to contact the previous employer regarding correction or rebuttal of the data, and keep a record of each request and response for one year that includes the date of the response, the party to whom it was released, and a summary identifying what information was provided.

Driver Testing - A qualified driver should take a test drive with the employee/applicant to determine if there are any deficiencies in driving skills and to evaluate defensive-driving techniques. Defensive driving is driving to prevent accidents in spite of the incorrect actions of others or adverse driving conditions (such as weather, traffic, lighting, vehicle or road conditions, or the driver's physical or mental state). Any bad driving habits should be corrected prior to a driver's first trip.

For motor carriers subject to the FMCSR, the regulations require that a person successfully complete a road test and be issued a "Certificate of Driver's Road Test," before being allowed to drive a CMV. As an equivalent to the road test, a motor carrier may accept a valid CDL that has been issued to the driver to operate specific categories of CMVs, not including double/triple trailers, and which, under the laws of that state, licenses the driver after successful completion of a road test in a CMV of the type the motor carrier intends to assign to him/her; or a copy of a valid certificate of driver's road test issued to the driver within the preceding three years. If a motor carrier accepts a license or certificate as equivalent to the road test, the motor carrier must retain a legible copy in the driver qualification file.

Physical Qualifications - The physical fitness of the driver should be considered before hiring and should be periodically reevaluated. Drivers subject to the FMCSR must have a physical examination every 24 months by a qualified medical examiner.

Drug Testing - All drivers holding a CDL must be included in a drug-testing program meeting the requirements of the DOT. Including all drivers and maintenance personnel in this program is advisable; however, legal counsel should be consulted before instituting the program.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-50-04, Controlled Substances and Alcohol Use and Testing.

Driver Qualification File - Motor carriers subject to the FMCSR must have a driver qualification file for each regularly employed driver. The required records may be combined with a driver's personnel file. The driver qualification file must include:

Application for Employment - A completed and signed application for employment, dated prior to the driver's first trip.

Inquiries to Previous Employers (3 Years) - A written record of the investigation of the driver's employment history for the three years prior to the driver being employed. This investigation must be made prior to or within 30 days of the date the driver was hired.

Initial State Motor Vehicle Record (MVR) Review (3 Years) - A copy of the driver's state(s) MVR for the three years prior to the driver being employed.

MVR Annual Update and Review - An annual update of the driver's state MVR and a note detailing the results of the motor carrier's review, including the name of the person who reviewed the MVR and the date of the review.

Annual Driver's Certification of Violations - A list of all violations of motor vehicle traffic laws and ordinances by the driver, during the previous 12 months. At least once every 12 months, a motor carrier must require each driver that it employs to prepare and furnish it with a list of all violations of motor vehicle traffic laws and ordinances during the previous 12 months. Note: Drivers holding a CDL, who have provided this information during the year, need not repeat that information in this annual list of violations.

Driver's Road Test Certificate or Equivalent - A copy of the road test certificate, or a copy of the license or certificate, which the motor carrier accepted as equivalent to the driver's road test.

Medical Examinations - A copy of the Medical Examiner's Certificate and any documented waiver of a physical qualification. A driver must pass a medical examination conducted by a licensed health care professional and be issued a Medical Examiner's Certificate, which must be carried at all times and be renewed every two years. Note: States are now required to include the Medical Examiners information on the CDL record. The driver must carry a current copy until the state adds the information to the CDL record. CMV drivers not required to have a CDL must continue to carry a paper copy of the Medical Examiner's Certificate.

Entry-Level Driver's Training Certificate - For entry-level drivers, a training certificate must be kept in the driver's personnel or qualification file. The certificate must be kept for as long as the employer employs the driver and for one year thereafter.

Removal of Files

The following files may be removed from the driver's qualification file three years after the date of execution:

•        The annual MVR and notes regarding the evaluation of same, as well as the CDL violations reported by the driver.

•        The copy of the Medical Examiner's Certificate/or CDL proof and any waiver of a physical qualification.

Driver Training

Benefits - Proper training reduces operational disruptions and minimizes unnecessary costs from accidents and equipment abuse. Positive driver attitudes can be promoted by emphasizing that the intent of the training program is to benefit drivers by helping them to perform their jobs safely and efficiently.

Trainers - Where in-house training is provided, the person selected to do driver training should have an unblemished personnel and safety record (to serve as an example for others) and sufficient experience to have knowledge of the motor carrier's operations and procedures.

Training - Drivers need to be instructed on the proper way to operate vehicles. Areas that need to be specifically addressed in the training of the drivers include handling characteristics of trucks, securement of materials on vehicles, proper operation of equipment for loading and unloading the vehicle, vehicle inspection, and the proper use of emergency equipment. Where a trailer is used, a driver should be trained to check that it is properly hitched before moving the vehicle and that all connections between the towing vehicle and trailer have been correctly made.

Documentation - All training should be documented in the driver's qualification file, including the type of training and date. Having the driver sign a form verifying that training was received is a good policy.

Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Training Requirements - FMCSA has established standards for mandatory training requirements for entry-level operators of CMVs who drive in interstate commerce and are required to have a CDL. An "entry-level driver" is a driver with less than one-year experience operating a CMV requiring a CDL in interstate commerce. All entry-level drivers are required to receive the training before operating a CMV. Although FMCSA does not currently specify the specific course content, the following areas must be covered: driver qualification requirements; hours of service; driver wellness; and whistleblower protection.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-50-20, Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Training Requirements.

Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver Training Requirements - Except for LCV drivers who have been ‘grandfathered' in, a driver who wishes to operate a LCV must first take and successfully complete a LCV driver-training program. To qualify for the LCV training, a driver-student, during the six months immediately preceding application for training, must have the following:

•        A valid Class A CDL with a double/triple trailer endorsement.

•        Driving experience in a Group A vehicle [any combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating (GCWR) of 26,001 lb (11,794 kg) or more provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 lb (4,536 kg)]. The evidence of driving experience must be an employer's written statement that the driver has, for at least six months immediately preceding the application, operated a Group A vehicle while under his/her employ.

•        No more than one driver's license.

•        No suspension, revocation, or cancellation of his/her CDL.

•        No convictions for a major offense while operating a CMV.

•        No convictions for a railroad-highway grade crossing offense while operating a CMV.

•        No convictions for violating an out-of-service order.

•        No more than one conviction for a serious traffic violation while operating a CMV.

•        No convictions for a violation of state or local law relating to motor vehicle traffic control arising in connection with any traffic crash while operating a CMV.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-50-19, Training Requirements for Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Operators.

Transportation of Hazardous Materials - Regulations promulgated by the Research and Special Programs Administration of the DOT require training of employees in the safe handling and transportation of hazardous materials. This training is required for HAZMAT employees who:

•        Load, unload, or handle hazardous materials.

•        Prepare hazardous materials for transportation.

•        Are responsible for the safety of the transportation of hazardous materials.

•        Operate a vehicle used to transport hazardous materials.

For a new HAZMAT employee or an employee changing job functions, training must be completed within 90 days. A new employee or one changing job functions may perform HAZMAT duties prior to completion of the required training, provided they are performed under the supervision of a properly trained and knowledgeable HAZMAT employee. Recurrent training is required at least once every three years to help assure that HAZMAT employees are kept aware of the constantly changing regulatory requirements. The regulations address five categories of training:

•        General awareness/familiarization

•        Function-specific

•        Safety

•        Security

•        Driver

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-55-02, Training for the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Materials.

Driver Supervision

Guidelines - One of the critical elements for a successful driver supervision program is the establishment of specific guidelines for job performance. These guidelines should be clearly understood by both supervisors and drivers and applied equally to all drivers.

Routing and Scheduling - Information about the routes that a driver should take to avoid exposures, such as low clearance, overhead wires and, wherever possible, backing the vehicle in higher risk locations, as well as alternates in the event the usual route is not available, should be in place. Fatigue can have a severe effect on the ability of a driver to operate a vehicle safely, and schedules should be carefully assessed to help ensure that the driver has sufficient rest. Adequate routing and scheduling control will also provide an opportunity to check if a driver is following the operational guidelines established by the motor carrier.

Hours-of-Service - To help limit driver fatigue, motor carriers subject to the FMCSR are required to limit the amount of driving time. Drivers:

•        May drive 11 hours after 10 hours off-duty;

•        May not drive beyond the 14th hour after coming on duty (the 14 hours cannot be extended with off-duty time for meal, fuel stops, and similar breaks);

•        May not drive after 60/70 hours on-duty in 7/8 consecutive days (however, a driver may restart a 7/8 consecutive day period after taking 34 or more consecutive hours off-duty, and may deduct off-duty time for meal, fuel stops, and similar breaks when calculating the 60/70 hours).

•        May not drive if more than 8 hours have passed since the end of the driver's last off-duty or sleeper-berth period of at least 30 minutes – called a "rest break."

Drivers may split on-duty time by using a sleeper berth. Any two sleeper-berth periods, each of which must be at least two hours long, totaling 10 hours may be used in calculating the 10-hour off-duty requirement. Sleeper-berth periods not used in calculating the 10-hour off-duty requirement may be applied to the 14-hour limit. In all cases, total hours driving may not exceed 11 hours following 10 hours off-duty.

The FMCSR also requires drivers to maintain a record-of-duty status (driver's daily log) current to the time shown for the last change-of-duty status. The driver log can be maintained manually or through the use of approved automatic on-board recording devices (AOBRDs). It is anticipated that the FMCSA will issue a final rule at the end of 2015 requiring the use of an electronic logging device (ELD) within two years (vehicles currently equipped with AOBRDs will have four years to upgrade those devices to meet the ELD requirements), in lieu of paper logs.

For further information on this topic, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-50-14, FMCSR - Hours-of-Service, and Client Handout CH-10-10Drivers' Hours-of-Service – Property Carriers.

Driver Observation - Direct observation by following the driver, as well as providing a clearly displayed toll-free telephone number on the vehicle for the public to file a report on the driver, are techniques to help ensure that a driver is adhering to company policy and driving safely. Many other techniques are employed to assure that the driver is operating as expected (e.g., mobile phone check-in with the motor carrier, GPS systems, on-board cameras, etc.).

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-30-00, Driver Supervision.

Emergency Equipment

All vehicles should be provided with emergency equipment, both as an aid in preventing accidents and to assist other motorists by alerting them of potential problems. A fire extinguisher should be provided on every vehicle, and be securely mounted and located so that it is readily accessible for use. There should be at least one spare fuse or other overload protective device for each kind and size required for the vehicle, unless devices used are of the reset type. To alert other drivers in the event that a vehicle is obstructing the roadway, it is recommended that vehicles be equipped with three bi-directional emergency reflective triangles. For motor carriers subject to the FMCSR, emergency equipment must be on vehicles. Drivers also should be trained in the proper use of the emergency equipment.

Wheel chocks, while not usually considered emergency equipment, should be carried on trucks for use on inclines at pick-up and delivery locations, unless the trucks or trailers are equipped with spring brakes that automatically engage when the unit is parked.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-40-00, Emergency Equipment.

Vehicle Maintenance and Inspection

Accountability - Reduced operational costs, reduced accidents from vehicle defects, and improved public opinion are direct benefits of a well-implemented maintenance policy. Drivers, maintenance personnel, and supervisors should be held accountable for the condition of vehicles, and clear lines of communication need to be established between them.

Inspection - Drivers should perform a pre-trip vehicle inspection, on each vehicle operated, to discover any defect or deficiency that would affect the safe operation of the vehicle or result in its mechanical breakdown. The inspection should cover at least the following parts and accessories: service brakes, including trailer brake connections; parking (hand) brake; steering mechanism; lighting devices and reflectors; tires; horn; windshield wipers; rear vision mirrors; coupling devices; wheels and rims; and emergency equipment.

Motor carriers subject to the FMCSR must have their drivers prepare a written driver vehicle inspection report (DVIR) at the completion of each day's work, for each vehicle operated, if any defect or deficiency is discovered. The report must identify the vehicle and list any defect or deficiency discovered by or reported to the driver that would affect the safety of operation of the vehicle or result in its mechanical breakdown. The driver must sign the report. Before driving a CMV, the driver must be satisfied that the vehicle is in safe operating condition, review the last DVIR if available, and sign the report to acknowledge that the driver has reviewed it and that there is a certification that any required repairs have been performed.

Vehicle Maintenance - If vehicle maintenance is performed by the motor carrier, there should be adequate facilities and qualified mechanics. If vehicle maintenance is outsourced, vendors providing the service should be qualified to perform the work and be reputable. When vehicles are leased, it should be clearly stated who is responsible for providing maintenance. The schedule for performing vehicle maintenance should be detailed and performed accordingly.

It is important to have procedures in place in case of vehicle breakdown or discovery of a serious vehicle defect. A vehicle with a known safety defect should not be allowed on the road until repairs have been completed. Placing an out-of-service tag or similar identifier on the vehicle can help to highlight that the vehicle is unavailable for use.

Securement devices also need to be carefully inspected and maintained. All vehicle structures, systems, parts, and components used to secure cargo should be in proper working order at all times. Securement devices should not have any damaged or weakened components, or cracks or cuts that will adversely affect their performance, including reducing the working load limit.

Recordkeeping - A good maintenance program should include a thorough and up-to-date recordkeeping system. To be useful, maintenance records should clearly identify the vehicle, be kept current, only record meaningful data, and be reviewed on a periodic basis.

Employee-Owned Vehicles - If employee-owned vehicles are used, the business should be concerned with the condition of those vehicles. A poorly-maintained, employee-owned vehicle that is involved in an accident, while on company business, can result in liability for the business.

For further information, see Commercial Vehicle Report CV-35-00, Vehicle Maintenance.

Accident Reporting, Recording, and Analysis

Preparedness - A system of reporting, recording, and analyzing the facts surrounding vehicular accidents should be established. Those involved should know their role should an accident occur, and procedures should be in place to provide for a thorough analysis of the events that led up to the accident.

The initial actions at an accident scene are often critical to the outcome of the incident. The driver may be under extreme stress at the time; thus, the procedures to be followed should be clear and concise and thoroughly understood. An information packet containing instructions and forms for use in case of an accident should be carried in the vehicle at all times. Photographs of the accident scene can also prove helpful in accident analysis.

After protecting the accident scene and assisting anyone who was injured in the accident, the first step in accident reporting is for the company's driver to collect all pertinent information at the scene and include it in a preliminary accident report. Thoroughness in performing this task will be of great help in assessing the accident afterwards. Once the driver has obtained the basic information for the preliminary accident report, management should be contacted.

Management Investigation - All accidents should be investigated to some extent. Management needs to know exactly what happened and why it happened in order to determine what might be done to prevent a similar occurrence in the future. A determination should be made as to whether the accident was a "preventable accident" on the part of the motor carrier's driver. This is irrespective of the legal conditions surrounding an accident, as preventability relates to "defensive driving" and not legal culpability. A preventable accident is one in which the driver failed to exercise every reasonable precaution to prevent the accident.

Accident Analysis - The investigation of each accident should not merely seek the specific act that was involved, but should go further into the conditions responsible to avoid problems in the future. The investigation should include the following areas: (1) checking the driver's record for similar occurrences, length of service, and indications of poor attitude or lack of skill; (2) questioning whether a proper job of selection was done, whether training was adequate, and if the driver was properly supervised; (3) determining if there were previous indications that should have warned of an impending accident; and (4) ascertaining if there was any indication of improper maintenance procedures or if an equipment deficiency was involved.

Thorough analysis of the accident may indicate that remedial training or disciplinary action of the driver is necessary or that operating procedures need to be modified.

Accident Register - It is good practice, and required for motor carriers subject to the FMCSR, to maintain an accident register containing at least the following information on each crash:

•        Date of crash.

•        City or town in which, or most near where the crash occurred, and the state in which the crash occurred.

•        Driver name.

•        Number of injuries.

•        Number of fatalities.

•        Whether hazardous materials, other than fuel spilled from the fuel tanks of motor vehicles involved in the crash, were released.

Analyzing the accident register may indicate problem areas or trends that would not otherwise be obvious by reviewing crash reports separately.

Truckers Insurance Florida Liability Exposure Assessment

The following questions highlight general liability concerns to address when evaluating a trucking company for general liability exposures:

Management

q  Does the company have an organized system for managing liability exposures?

q  Do employees receive orientation on their responsibilities under the system?

q  Is the equipment installed to remove snow prior to leaving the facility?

q  Are drivers required to remove snow and ice from the top of the vehicle prior to beginning work and before restarting while en route?

Condition of the Premises

q  Are business premises and buildings secured from unauthorized access?

q  Are signs posted warning of guard dogs, armed guards, or other hazardous security measures?

q  Are the premises well-lighted?

q  Are vehicle routes clearly marked?

q  Are speed limits posted for vehicles, or is vehicle speed otherwise controlled?

q  Are vehicle loading and unloading areas separated from visitor areas?

q  Are loading dock doors regularly inspected and maintained?

q  Are loading docks kept clean and uncluttered?

q  Is the equipment used in loading and unloading vehicles regularly inspected and maintained?

q  Are visitor areas regularly maintained and inspected for accident hazards (e.g., spilled liquids, broken furniture, floor-level obstructions, or burned-out light bulbs)?

Contractual Liability

q  Does the business have procedures for selecting independent contractors or other service providers?

q  Does the business review all contractors for indemnification clauses, hold harmless clause, or other risk transfer devices?

q  Are steps taken to mitigate liability assumed under contract?

q  Are independent owner/operators required to provide insurance for times when they are not operating under orders of the trucking company?

q  Are contractors required to provide proof of insurance?

Environmental Liability

q  Is fuel storage and dispensing equipment in compliance with environmental laws and regulations?

q  Is there an emergency spill plan in place to handle both large and small spills?

q  Are chemicals stored according to manufacturer recommendations and applicable codes?

q  Are waste chemicals collected and recycled or disposed of properly in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations?

Liability Exposure Controls

The following sections provide recommendations for controlling loss exposures that typically occur in trucking operations:

Loss Control Management

The trucking company should develop and implement an organized system for managing liability loss exposures. The system should define the policies and procedures that the business will take to eliminate or control such exposures.

The formality of the program will vary depending upon the size of the company; however, the system should include: (1) a hazard risk assessment identifying the (2) provisions for regular inspection of the premises for loss exposures; (3) documentation of inspection results and corrective actions taken, if any; (4) accident reporting and investigation; (5) loss analysis; and (6) plan auditing. Employees should receive orientation in their responsibilities under the program when first hired. Retraining should be provided on a regular basis.

See Liability Report LB-20-01Loss Control Management Program, for additional information on developing loss control management systems.

Loss control management incorporates risk identification, risk assessment, and risk control. In many cases, in the early phase of identifying exposure, some businesses look to identify all the risks associated with a particular activity or process, in which case the activity is more properly referred to as hazard identification, risk assessment, and then risk control. The aim of the process is to minimize the likelihood or consequence of a particular risk to a level that is minimal and that we are prepared to accept. The risk management process includes: identification of a hazard, identification of the associated risk, and assessment of the risk - which includes: the likelihood, the consequence, and assigning a priority for correction.

Condition of the Premises

Steps should be taken to ensure that those areas of their business premises, which are accessible to customers and other non-employees (e.g., delivery personnel), are reasonably safe. These steps should include: (1) meeting applicable public safety codes and standards (e.g., building and fire codes); (2) regularly maintaining the premises; (3) inspecting the premises for accident hazards; and (4) addressing any hazards that are identified (e.g., by correcting the hazardous condition or warning others of the hazard).

Perimeter Security - The perimeter of their business premises should be secured to prevent unauthorized public access. The method of securing the premises will vary depending upon the characteristics of the premises.

Fencing should be regularly inspected and maintained. Signs should be posted warning trespassers of any potentially hazardous security measures employed by the operator, such as guard dogs, armed guards, or electrified fences. Also, security personnel should be properly screened.

For additional information on access restrictions associated with crime prevention, see the Property - Crime Exposure Controls section of this report.

Lighting - All lighting should comply with local building and fire code requirements. If no requirements are specified, lighting should meet the guidelines of the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES). More information is available at http://www.ies.org/handbook/.

Lighting should be inspected regularly, and burned-out bulbs should be replaced on a timely basis. Electrical wiring to fixtures should not be exposed, and lighting fixtures should be protected from vandalism. Outdoor lights should be able to withstand the elements.

Emergency lighting should be installed wherever required and regularly tested.

Fire Protection - Steps should be taken to prevent fires. Such steps should include identifying hazardous materials, segregating incompatible materials, isolating high-hazard areas, incorporating fire protection, preventing the buildup of brush or combustible debris, and emergency planning. For detailed information on fire protection, see the Property-Fire Exposure Controls section of this report.

Vehicle Routes – Operators should establish routes that vehicles should follow when entering and exiting the premises. The purpose of these routes is to establish an orderly flow of traffic to and from the loading area. If feasible, these truck routes should be separated from employee or visitor traffic to prevent collisions between trucks and other vehicles on site.

Vehicle routes should be clearly marked using signs, pavement markings, or other traffic control devices. Speed limits should be posted and enforced. If speed bumps are used, these bumps should be clearly marked and identified.

The route should be designed and constructed to withstand expected vehicle loading. Drainage should be provided as necessary. The route should be well-maintained, and the warehouse operator should post signs warning drivers of the presence of any significant defects or obstructions (e.g., sinkholes or frost heaves). Terminals located in northern areas should make arrangements for the prompt removal of snow and ice.

Railroad Sidetracks – Operations that receive materials via rail car will have railroad sidetracks. The facility operator should have a written agreement ("sidetrack agreement") with the railroad operator that defines the obligations and liabilities of each party for maintaining the sidetrack. Warnings should be posted where railroad tracks cross public roads.

Loading Docks - Loading docks should be designed according to local building code requirements and maintained in safe condition. Ramps and stairs should meet Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements for walking and working surfaces. Signs should be posted warning of unguarded edges of the loading dock and the edge painted a contrasting color.

Transfer areas should be regularly inspected for accident hazards. Such hazards can include slippery surfaces caused by spilled liquids, rain, snow, or ice; floor-level obstructions, such as empty pallets, mislaid materials handling equipment, or debris; protruding objects; burned-out light bulbs; or unmarked changes of level. Facility operators should repair or warn of any hazards of which they have notice.

Loading doors should be regularly inspected and maintained. Overhead doors should never be only partially opened. See the Workers' Compensation Exposure Controls section of this report for more information about safety requirements in loading areas.

Parking Areas – Terminals that allow public access should have clearly identified visitor-parking areas. Signs should indicate that visitors should use this parking when they are at the facility.

The parking area should be well-lighted and well-maintained. Drainage should be provided. Gratings, posts, or other obstructions, or changes of surface, should be clearly marked.

The parking lot should be posted with signs or markings indicating where vehicles are to travel, as well as other appropriate signs and warnings. The markings should be easily visible and understandable.

Sidewalks should meet building code requirements and should not be obstructed with garbage or other debris. Exterior ramps or stairs leading to visitor entrances should meet building code requirements, be well-maintained, and regularly inspected for accident hazards (e.g., worn nosing, obstructions, ice, or snow).

Snow Removal Machines for Trucks - Snow that accumulates on the top of trucking fleets is dangerous to a business. Dangerous not only because of the safety risk that it poses to highway motorists who drive behind snow-covered trucks, but dangerous to a trucking company's bottom line. Large amounts of snowfall in winter can delay a fleet from leaving the facility, jeopardize delivery deadlines, and consume employee resources. Automating the process of removing snow from a truck fleet quickly and effectively is one way to address the issue. It is also recommended that drivers use this equipment when stopped for a period of time before they get back onto the roadways. In some states, it is against the law to drive without removing snow and ice from the top of the vehicle.

Driver/Visitor Areas - Driver waiting areas should be provided where drivers can wait while their trucks are being loaded or unloaded. These areas and other areas accessible to non-employees (e.g., bathrooms and office areas) should be clearly identified. They should be regularly inspected for accident hazards, such as slip and trip hazards (e.g., carpeting should be secured to the floor, and liquid spills should be cleaned up), broken furniture, and damaged appliances or electrical equipment. Hazards that are identified should be corrected or other steps taken to warn or mitigate the hazard. Hazardous equipment and materials should not be stored in customer areas.

Means of egress should be clearly identified. Every exit should be clearly visible or the route to the exit conspicuously indicated, and the exit access and exits themselves should be marked and lighted as required by local code.

Employee Areas - Building areas that are restricted to employees should be separated by doorways, barricades, or other access control devices. Restricted areas should be clearly marked. Non-employees should not be allowed in these areas unless they are escorted and are wearing appropriate protective equipment, such as safety shoes and protective eyewear. Visitors should not be allowed in areas where hazardous operations are being performed until after the operation has been completed and the area secured.

Contractual Liability

There are several contractual liability exposures associated with the hiring or leasing of drivers and vehicles, the use of independent contractors for security and maintenance-related services, and customer contracts. Steps that can be taken to manage such risks include contractor selection, contractual agreements, and enforcement of insurance provisions.

Contractor Selection – Controls should be established for hiring all contractors whom they use. Selection criteria should address the competence of the contractor to do the requested task. These criteria should include proof of necessary licenses, endorsements, or certifications and work experience. The Commercial Automobile section of this report includes specific recommendations for driver selection.

Contractual Agreements – All contracts to which the company is a party should be reviewed for liability transfer provisions (e.g., indemnification, hold-harmless, or liability retention clauses) before the contract is signed. Unacceptable liability transfers should be removed from contracts or their provisions modified, where possible. Companies should make sure that they are meeting the terms of any contracts they sign.

Contracts between the company and independent owner/operators should specify insurance coverages that the owner/operator must provide to meet the contract. Such coverages may include bobtail insurance, non-trucking use insurance, unladen insurance, or other insurance that addresses vehicle use when not under dispatch to the trucking company.

Insurance – The company should verify that insurance provisions are met in all contracts. Certificates of insurance are a common method of verifying coverage. Client Handout CH-40-07, Reviewing Certificates of Insurance, highlights key areas to review before accepting a certificate as proof of insurance.

See Liability Report LB-20-05Contractual Risk Transfer Issues: Reviewing Certificates of Insurance, for additional information about contractual liability.

Environmental

Owners or managers should take steps to identify, assess, and control environmental exposures at their facilities. Many environmental exposures are regulated, so regulatory compliance should be the baseline for any exposure control program. The degree of environmental exposure will vary depending on the materials, packaging, or location of such storage. Worksites should comply with all applicable parts of 49CFR Parts 100-177 (U.S. DOT Hazardous Materials Transportation, Oil Transportation, and Pipeline Safety). Worksites should have a spill response plan, and employees should be trained in accordance with 29CFR1910.120. Spills may be addressed with trained workers or professional contractors. See Client Handout CH-25-59Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Levels, for additional information.

Warehouse Operations - Facilities that store hazardous chemicals should be designed and constructed to provide spill control and containment. The storage area should be checked regularly for leaks and spills. Operators should not store incompatible substances in the same area. See Fire Protection Report FP-91-04, NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code.

Fuel Storage Tanks - Storage tanks used for vehicle fueling should meet applicable regulatory requirements. For detailed information on storage tanks, see Liability Reports LB-50-40, Underground Storage Tanks, and LB-50-41, Aboveground Storage Tanks.

Other Concerns - Used oil, transmission fluids, antifreeze, and other hazardous waste materials should be stored and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations. Refrigeration equipment containing Freon® or other ozone-depleting chemicals should be managed according to EPA and applicable federal, state, and local regulations.

Property - Crime Exposure Assessment

The following information can assist in assessing property crime exposures for a general freight trucking company.

Employee Theft

q  Are all job applicants thoroughly screened prior to employment?

q  Are there controls on petty cash disbursements, bank deposits and withdrawals, issuance of checks, payroll, reconciliation of bank statements, and payment of invoices?

q  Is there an inventory control program?

q  Are there controls to limit the opportunity for collusion between employees and independent contractors? Between terminal personnel and drivers?

q  Can shipping and receiving documents be easily altered?

q  Are high-valued, easily concealed items stored in locked security cages?

q  Can employees enter or leave the facility without being seen?

q  Are there controls on trash disposal? A common method of employee theft is to hide pilfered goods in trash for later retrieval.

q  Is there closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance of loading docks, shipping/receiving rooms, etc.?

q  Do drivers keep records of fuel consumed each day?

q  Are security personnel trained in the procedures to follow in questioning or detaining an employee suspected of stealing?

q  Can employees who are caught stealing be successfully prosecuted?

Burglary

q  Is the trucking company located in a high-crime area?

q  What are the hours of operation of the business?

q  Is the perimeter of the property protected by a fence?

q  Is the fence line and grounds provided with a protective lighting system?

q  Are exterior lighting fixtures protected against breakage?

q  Are damaged lighting fixtures or burned-out bulbs replaced as soon as possible?

q  Would it be easy for a burglar to gain entry into buildings?

q  Is there equipment or structures in outdoor areas that could be used by a burglar to gain entry onto the property or into buildings?

q  Is there a structure, building alcove, or overgrown foliage that could provide a burglar with cover to work without fear of being seen?

q  Are windows, doors, including loading dock doors, and other openings, such as roof hatches, securely locked?

q  If burglars were to enter the premises, would it be easy for them to get goods out?

q  Are loaded cargo trailers secured to prevent their being stolen?

Vandalism

q  Are there signs of vandalism on the premises, such as graffiti on building walls?

q  Are there signs of transients or vagrants living on or about the property?

q  Is the perimeter of the property protected by a fence?

q  Are hazardous materials stored outside that may be targets of criminals?

q  Is the property adequately illuminated?

q  Is fuel dispensing equipment secured during non-business hours?

q  Are there security patrols of the property?

Property - Crime Exposure Controls

A crime prevention program for a general freight trucking company should address employee theft, burglary, and vandalism, the property crimes to which such businesses are most susceptible. For information on cargo security, see the Property - Inland Marine Exposure Controls section of this report.

Employee Theft Prevention

Employee theft, by definition, is the unlawful taking, control, or transfer of an employer's property with the purpose of benefiting the employee or another not entitled to the property. Whether it is called white-collar crime, workplace crime, internal theft, pilferage, or just plain stealing, employee theft represents a significant loss exposure. The key to reducing employee theft is for management to admit that theft is possible and then create an environment that makes stealing as difficult as possible.

Pre-employment Screening - The first line of defense against employee theft is to hire honest employees at the outset. This is best accomplished through a program of pre-employment screening. By performing in-depth checks of an applicant's job history and references, management can reduce its exposure to theft while creating an environment of honesty. A thorough screening process will convey to employees that management is concerned with ensuring the highest level of integrity in the workforce.

Employers should be aware that there are many state and federal laws intended to protect an employee's rights and privacy and thus impact on an employer's pre-employment screening program. Employers should be familiar with the provisions of these laws and aware of the risks associated with their violation. For additional information, see Liability Reports LB-70-50, Pre-Employment Screening - Background Checks, and LB-70-51, Pre-Employment Screening - Criminal Background Checks.

Employee Training - A program of periodic security seminars should be conducted for all employees involved in cargo handling and document processing. The cargo security program should be an integral part of the employee indoctrination program, and security should be reinforced in ongoing training.

Procedural Controls and Devices - Procedures and devices that make theft more difficult or apprehension more likely are intended to limit the opportunity for theft. In any event, the application of these procedures and devices should be performed with the knowledge of employees and their agreement; otherwise, there may be a damaging effect on employee morale and productivity. Procedures that make theft more difficult include the following: (1) Arranging work flow and task assignments so that the work of one employee acts as a control on that of another; (2) Dividing responsibilities and functions so that no one employee has control over all facets of a transaction. For example, the person who has the authority to write checks and make deposits should not be responsible for reconciling the bank statement; (3) Separating the shipping and receiving areas as much as possible; (4) Supervising the shipping and receiving operations and utilizing closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance to deter pilferage; (5) Implementing a program of frequent, unannounced spot checks or audits of shipping and receiving operations; (6) Reducing the exposure of goods to pilferage by keeping the shipping and receiving docks and warehousing areas clean and unobstructed; (7) Storing all high-value goods in cages or other secure areas, assigning supervisory responsibility to one person per shift, and restricting access into storage areas only to those employees so authorized; and (8) Using security devices that can serve as deterrents to theft, such as CCTV.

Drivers may be provided with cash to pay for traveling expenses, such as tolls or fuel. A recordkeeping system should be established to account for the drivers' expenses. Drivers should also be required to keep records of the amount of fuel they use on a daily basis.

For example, CCTV can be used: to view yards/docks/terminals; to enhance accurate description of an incident or to provide a video record with time/date stamp; for continuous, random, or emergency monitoring of facilities or vehicles for use as evidence in legal proceedings; to deter criminal activity in difficult-to-patrol areas, such as parking lots; to support police operations and enhance incident response; to assist undercover police officers in observing facilities, and to aid in identifying perpetrators and documenting activities. For additional information, see Crime Prevention Reports CP-52-10, CCTV: Basic Components, and CP-52-20, CCTV: Application and Use.

Improving Job Satisfaction - Improving job satisfaction is a desirable strategy for controlling employee theft, since several of the accepted causes of theft are believed to stem from low job satisfaction. Human resource programs designed to build employee loyalty and align employee and company goals, such as profit-sharing, promotion-from-within policies, and fair compensation practices, are effective at reducing employee theft. Through such programs, management can establish an atmosphere of positive attitudes that will benefit the company not only in terms of increased honesty, but in terms of increased productivity as well. Management should work to enhance employee morale.

Dismissal/Prosecution - Although its effectiveness is often debatable, a policy of dismissal or prosecution is considered a control strategy because of its role as a deterrent. The fear of being caught, coupled with dismissal, possible prosecution, and the threat of jail (depending on the severity of the crime) will cause many employees to think twice about stealing.

Some companies, however, feel they gain very little by an aggressive policy of prosecution. Besides the expense in terms of time, money (the cost of prosecuting a suspected employee can run into the tens of thousands of dollars), and effort, there is the fear of bad publicity and the risk of lawsuits for libel, malicious prosecution, and false arrest. These are possibly the reasons why the rate of prosecution of apprehended employee thieves is so low - less than one percent. Nonetheless, where it is warranted, strong positive action must be taken, since prosecution is a recognized deterrent to employee theft.

Burglary Protection

Physical Security - Burglary is a crime of opportunity. Research into the crime indicates that burglars look for places that offer the best opportunity for success. In choosing targets, burglars look for locations that contain something worth stealing and then select those that look easy to break into. Burglars appear to be strongly influenced by the look and feel of the business they are planning to burglarize. Consequently, if the exterior of a business appears to reflect attention to security, the burglar will likely look for an easier opportunity. Good locks, ironwork, and lighting all contribute to making a building appear secure.

For additional information on burglary protection, see Crime Prevention Reports CP-30-10, Physical Protection Afforded by Buildings, CP-36-10, Locking Hardware, and CP-37-10, Securing Exterior Doors.

If burglars are able to get inside the facility, consideration should be given to making it as difficult as possible for them to move goods out of the facility. Forklift trucks and other materials handling equipment should be secured (for example, the keys removed from ignitions) to prevent them from being used to move goods. Side and rear entrances, and doors to loading docks, should be securely locked from the inside, so burglars cannot use them to move goods out of the facility.

Burglar Alarm Systems - Executing a burglary involves locating and collecting items of value. Factors that influence the time burglars will spend on the premises include: the skill and confidence of the burglar(s); if valuables are stored in a safe or vault; the quality of the burglar alarm protection; and the anticipated response by the police or alarm company personnel.

A premises burglar alarm system may deter a burglar. A UL-Certificated central station burglar alarm system that sends a silent signal to a monitoring station, which dispatches guards on receipt of the signal, is preferred. An alarm system that sounds a local bell is better than no alarm at all - at the very least, it may scare off the burglar.

While a perimeter alarm system that detects the burglars before they get into the facility is preferred, such a system may not be cost-effective if the facility has a long expanse of walls, many doors and windows, and multitude of roof openings, such as skylights and vents. As such, the alarm system should provide for motion detection inside the facility, particularly along the likely paths, such as aisles, that a burglar would have to use to move goods.

A safe, security closet, security cage, or vault that is used to store high-value goods should be protected by an alarm system. Depending on the values stored, this system should be monitored separately form the premises system.

The alarm system(s) should be tested regularly and maintained properly. A testing and maintenance contract is a requirement of UL Certification. A sign indicating that the premises are protected by a burglar alarm system may serve as a deterrent. For additional information, see Crime Prevention Report CP-48-30, UL Modular Burglar Alarm Certificate Service.

Security Personnel - The presence of security personnel, especially during periods when the facility is closed, can serve as a deterrent to burglary. To be most effective, guards should patrol the facility. CCTV systems should not substitute for guard patrols, but can support the efforts of guards by expanding their surveillance capabilities and providing records of events at the facility.

The use of security guards, especially armed personnel, can create liability exposures. Lawsuits involving security personnel have claimed that they were negligently hired, trained, or supervised. Training programs for security personnel should address these exposures.

For additional information, see Crime Prevention Reports CP-71-10, Guidelines for the Selection, Training and Licensing of Private Security Officers, and CP-74-10, Security Guard Services: Liability Considerations.

Vandalism Prevention

The physical design of buildings, such as features that allow for increased visibility of vandals, plays an important role in deterring vandalism. Inadequate lighting and places of concealment, such as dense shrubbery, isolated parking areas, and alleyways, create opportunities for vandalism.

Grounds should be kept clear of rocks, bottles, and other objects that can be used as missiles. Clear anti-graffiti coatings can be applied to surfaces to make them easier to clean. Exterior lighting will serve to discourage vandals; lighting fixtures should be protected by plastic lenses or metal screens over the fixtures. Physical barriers, such as chain-link fencing and walls, will serve to limit access onto the property.

Outside storage of hazardous materials should be avoided. If these materials are stored in yard areas, they should be secured in a separately fenced area and, when necessary, afforded alarm protection and/or CCTV surveillance.

Vehicles should be immobilized by disabling them or using anti-theft/anti-vandalism devices and parked centrally in a well-lighted, secure area. All equipment cabs should be locked during non-working hours. Oil and gas tank caps of equipment and vehicles should be locked, where possible.

Fuel dispensing equipment, including tanks, should be secured during non-business hours. Electrical service to the pumps should be turned off during non-business hours.

Another effective vandalism prevention measure is security patrols. Security patrols serve as deterrents because they increase the risk that a vandal will be caught.

Property - Fire Exposure Assessment

The fire exposures for general-freight trucking establishments will vary based on the type of building construction, the size of the facility, and the operations involved. The loss of life as well as the structure, vehicles, and goods in transit are the primary fire-loss concerns. Fires may be electrical in origin, related to equipment-repair operations, or improper handling of flammable liquids and gases. The following information can assist in assessing the fire exposures of general-freight trucking establishments:

Facility Design and Construction

q  Is the facility in compliance with local building and fire prevention codes?

q  Have any renovations and/or alterations been made since the last inspection?

q  Are concealed spaces properly fire-stopped or otherwise protected?

q  Are there fire exposures from adjacent buildings or structures?

q  Are stairways, elevator shafts, escalator openings, or other vertical openings enclosed with fire barriers or protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system?

q  Do buildings meet the requirements of Chapter 38, "New Business Occupancies," or Chapter 39, "Existing Business Occupancies," of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)?

q  Do storage occupancies, such as repair garages and equipment storage buildings, meet the requirements of Chapter 42, "Storage Occupancies," of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)?

q  Is the facility separated from other occupancies by walls, floors, and ceilings having a minimum fire-resistance rating, as required in Table 6.114.4.1 of NFPA 101?

q  Are high-hazard areas, such as boiler rooms and flammable liquid storage areas, separated from each other and all other spaces by firewalls or barriers?

q  Are service/repair area floors sloped toward drains provided with a spill containment system?

q  Are service pits provided with mechanical ventilation?

q  Are storage rooms, trash rooms, inside dumpster areas, and similar areas separated from other areas by one-hour fire barriers or protected by automatic sprinklers?

q  Are the building's furnishings and decorations fire-retardant?

q  Are access roads provided for buildings when any point of a building's exterior is located more than 150 ft (45.7 m) from a roadway?

Means of Egress

q  Are at least two fire exits provided for each smoke compartment?

q  Are fire exits provided with panic hardware and not locked by chains or padlocks?

q  Are the locations of fire exits indicated by clearly visible signs?

q  Is an emergency lighting system provided in means of egress?

q  In business occupancies, is the travel distance to a fire exit or a separate smoke compartment not more than 200 ft (61 m) or 300 ft (91 m) for areas protected by an automatic sprinkler system?

q  In warehouse areas, is the travel distance to a fire exit or a separate smoke compartment not more than 200 ft (61 m) or 400 ft (122 m) for areas protected by an automatic sprinkler system?

q  In areas with high-hazard operations, such as boiler rooms, is the travel distance to a fire exit or a separate smoke compartment not more than 75 ft (23 m)?

q  Are mezzanines, balconies, and platforms provided with guards and handrails when the distance to the next level below is greater than 4 ft (1.2 m)?

q  Are mezzanines, bridges, and balconies, which are used as part of an egress route, a minimum of 44-in (112-cm) wide, but not less than the width of the exit door serving the area?

q  Are horizontal sliding fire doors used on exits into a stairwell?

Building Services

q  Does the electrical system appear to be in good working condition?

q  Is the electrical system adequate to handle the expected loads?

q  Are electrical appliances that are used in areas where flammable atmospheres are present listed/approved for such use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL)?

q  Are electrical systems that are installed where flammable liquids are stored or dispensed listed/approved for Class I Division 2 locations?

q  Is electrical equipment that is used in wet areas, such as restrooms and outside locations, provided with ground fault protection?

q  Are electrical cords and connections for appliances inspected before use?

q  Are appliances listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL)?

q  Are air circulation systems designed to automatically shut down in the event of a fire?

q  Are furnaces and boilers for heating systems located in a separate area that has a minimum fire-resistance rating of two hours and no openings within 10 ft (3 m) of flammable liquid storage?

q  Are the return-air vents for heating systems at least 18 in (45.5 cm) above the floor and the return air not drawn from areas where flammable liquids are used or stored?

q  Are boilers that produce steam for heating provided with a manually-operated, emergency shutoff valve for the fuel supply?

q  Is gas- and oil-fired equipment maintained according to the manufacturers' recommendations?

Fire Suppression and Alarm Systems

q  Are buildings protected by a fire alarm system that provides both manual and automatic initiation devices?

q  Are smoke detection and fire alarm systems provided for each enclosed room or area?

q  Are fire suppression and alarm systems covered by maintenance and service contracts?

q  Does the alarm system include both manual and automatic initiation devices that provide immediate evacuation notification to the occupants?

q  Does the activation of the alarm system cause the release of hold-open devices on smoke compartment doors?

q  Are processing equipment, including boilers, equipped with alarms that provide warning when system temperatures, pressures, or operational parameters are exceeded?

q  Does the building have a sprinkler system that is installed and maintained in conformance with NFPA 13, Standard for Installation of Sprinkler Systems, published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)?

q  Are standpipe systems provided?

q  Are buildings that are located in areas without public water systems provided with alternate water sources, in accordance with NFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting?

q  Is the fire department notified when service, repair, or maintenance activities will impede the sprinkler system for more than four hours (in a 24-hour period)?

q  Is there a sufficient number of listed/approved portable fire extinguishers, and are they properly located, as required in NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers?

q  Are fire extinguishers properly maintained?

q  Are employees trained in the use of portable fire extinguishers?

Storage Practices

q  Are consumable supplies, such as office paper and cleaning supplies, stored in conformance with local fire code requirements?

q  Are supplies stored on stable surfaces, in stable configurations, and not blocking access to fire and emergency exits?

q  Are supplies and stock located at least 3 ft (0.9 m) from heating units and ductwork?

q  Are storage rooms, trash rooms, and similar areas separated from other areas by one-hour fire barriers or protected by automatic sprinklers?

q  If there are aboveground or underground storage tanks for flammable/combustible liquids on site, is the access to storage tanks restricted by fencing, location, or other means to ensure that unauthorized persons cannot enter the area?

q  Are all piping, filling, and off-loading equipment for storage tanks protected from physical damage by either their arrangement or location or by physical barriers?

q  Are aboveground fuel storage tanks provided with lightning protection?

q  Is equipment using gasoline or diesel fuel stored in a separate, detached building or in a room segregated from storage areas by firewalls or fire barriers and automatic-closing fire doors?

q  Are flammable liquids stored in a protected area that is separated from the rest of the facility?

q  Are flammable liquids stored in containers that are listed/approved for such use?

q  Is the inside storage of flammable or combustible liquids limited so that not more than 120 gal (454 L) of such liquids are stored in any one cabinet and not more than three cabinets located in the same storage area?

q  Are idle pallets stored flat (i.e., not on edges)?

q  Is the indoor storage of idle wood pallets protected by an automatic sprinkler system?

Operations

q  Is proper bonding and grounding used when flammable liquids are transferred between containers?

q  Is smoking prohibited whenever refueling of equipment is being performed?

q  Are fuel delivery nozzles provided with a listed or approved automatic-closing valve that will automatically stop the flow of fuel when the tank is full or if the nozzle is removed from the fill opening?

q  Are dispensing devices mounted on a concrete island or otherwise protected against collision damage?

q  Are equipment-cleaning operations using flammable or combustible liquids conducted in well-ventilated areas, away from open flames and other ignition sources?

q  Are liquid-soaked rags and paper from cleaning operations placed in covered metal containers and disposed of on a daily basis?

q  Is the electrical service in maintenance shops of sufficient capacity to handle the heavy loads from the types of electrical equipment used?

q  Is the electrical equipment properly grounded to prevent the generation of sparks?

q  Is a hot-work permit system required for all cutting, welding, and soldering operations?

q  Are cutting and welding equipment, including torches and fuel/gas cylinders, regularly inspected and serviced and provided with the proper safety mechanisms?

q  Are multi-purpose, portable fire extinguishers kept nearby whenever hot-work operations are undertaken?

q  Is a fire watch provided during hot-work operations and for at least one hour after operations have been completed?

q  Are the types of powered industrial trucks used suitable for the environment present?

q  Are materials handling equipment in good working order?

q  Are listed/approved materials handling equipment used in hazardous locations?

q  If smoking is allowed on the premises, is it restricted to certain areas?

Emergency Preparedness

q  Do employees check the exit doors and exit paths on a daily basis to ensure egress during an emergency?

q  Are emergency evacuation drills conducted on a semi-annual basis?

q  Are separate signals, such as voice commands, distinct alarms, or flags, used to recall employees to return to the building?

q  Is there an emergency action plan for the facility?

q  Are salvage and recovery procedures in place to help to reduce the severity of the loss and maintain business continuity?

q  Is there smoke removal equipment, including mechanical air-handling systems, powered exhaust fans, roof-mounted gravity vents, or perimeter gravity vent?

Incendiarism and Arson

q  Are all exterior areas of the business property illuminated?

q  Are exterior doors and windows of the business property secured from unauthorized access?

q  Does a fence protect the perimeter of the property?

q  Is there a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system?

q  Is there a guard patrol service?

Property - Fire Exposure Controls

A fire prevention and protection program for general-freight trucking establishments should include the following considerations:

Facility Design and Construction

General - A general-freight trucking property may have a number of different buildings with dedicated uses, such as offices, repair and fleet maintenance, and similar areas, are generally classified as light-hazard storage occupancies.

Buildings should comply with local building and fire prevention codes. While codes can vary widely by state, some basic measures are common to all codes. These include: fire exposure from adjoining facilities or adjacent structures should be limited by fire barriers or building separation; concealed spaces should be properly fire-stopped or otherwise protected; and in multi-story buildings, floors should be constructed to act as smoke barriers and vertical openings in the building protected to prevent the spread of smoke and fire.

The types of buildings present will depend on the services provided; as such, buildings may be of any construction type, as provided in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). However, NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, regardless of the type of construction, requires that: (1) the walls, floors, and ceilings have a minimum of a one-hour fire-resistance rating; (2) hazardous areas, including areas used for general storage, boiler or furnace rooms, janitor closets, and maintenance shops, be separated from other parts of the building by one-hour fire-resistance barriers and protected by automatic detection and sprinkler systems; (3) stairways, elevator shafts, escalator openings, or other vertical openings in the building be enclosed with fire-resisting walls or protected with approved automatic sprinkler systems; and (4) walls separating parking structures from the occupancy have a fire-resistance rating of not less than two hours.

A small office inside a warehouse would be incidental to the storage (i.e., warehosue) occupancy and not require specific separations. However, when different types of  occupancies (e.g., business and mercantile) are located in the same building, which are not incidental to the building's primary use, the occupancies should be separated from each other by walls, floors, and ceilings having a minimum fire-resistance rating, as specified in Table 6.114.4.1 of NFPA 101

Business Occupancies - Business occupancies, such as small classrooms, offices, and data processing facilities, should meet the requirements of Chapter 38, "New Business Occupancies," or Chapter 39, "Existing Business Occupancies," of NFPA 101. NFPA 101 does not provide any specific construction requirements for business occupancies, other than the general separation requirements for all occupancies. However, the International Building Code (IBC), published by the International Codes Council (ICC), does restrict the height of business occupancies, based on the building's construction, as follows: (1) buildings of Type II, III, or IV construction should not exceed five stories; (2) buildings of Type I construction are not limited in height; and (3) buildings of Type V construction should not exceed three stories.

Repair/Maintenance Facilities - Trucking companies may have repair garages for incidental service and of lift equipment and tractor/trailers. Such facilities should meet the requirements of NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. While NFPA 30A requires the repair facility to meet the requirement of special purpose industrial occupancy, as described in NFPA 101, there are no specific construction requirements for repair facilities, other than the general separation requirements for all occupancies.

However, NFPA 30A does require the floors to be of a non-combustible material or surfaced with a non-combustible, non-absorbent material. Walls, floors, and ceilings of service and repair areas should have a minimum one-hour fire-resistance rating. Shop floors should be sloped toward drains provided with a spill containment system. Service pits should be provided with mechanical ventilation having a capacity of 1 cfm/ft2 (0.3 m3/min/m2) of floor area, with the air inlet located not more than 12 in (0.3 m) above the floor.

Storage Occupancies - Storage occupancies should meet the requirements of Chapter 42, "Storage Occupancies," of NFPA 101. NFPA 101 does not provide any specific construction requirements for storage occupancies, other than the general separation requirements for all occupancies. However, the IBC does restrict the height of moderate-hazard storage occupancies, based on the building's construction, as follows: (1) buildings of Type II or IV construction should not exceed four stories; (2) buildings of Type III and V construction should not exceed three stories in height; and (3) buildings of Type I construction are not limited in height.

Exposure Protection - According to NFPA statistics, more than 13 percent of the fires occurring in storage properties are related to exposure from outside the building, such as fires in adjoining properties and wild-land fires. Buildings should be located and arranged to reduce the likelihood of exposure from fires in adjoining properties or from wild-land fires. At least a 30-ft (9-m) separation should be maintained between buildings and other exposures, such as automobiles, fuel tanks, outside storage areas, and high-grass or wooded areas. Vegetation in adjoining, open areas should be limited to well-irrigated small plants and grass.

Fire Department Access - Properties should have well-maintained access roads that are large enough to allow evacuation of the occupants and the simultaneous entry of fire department vehicles. Access roads should be provided for buildings when any point of a building's exterior is located more than 150 ft (45.7 m) from a roadway. At a minimum, codes will require that access roads: (1) be at least 20-ft (6.1-m) wide; (2) have a vertical clearance of at least 13.5 ft (4.1 m); and (3) not have more than a ten-percent grade.

See Client Handout CH-45-05, Protecting Properties from Wildfires, for additional information.

Furnishings - Furnishings should have a flame-spread rating meeting Class I requirements, in accordance with NFPA 260, Standard Methods of Tests for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture. Tablecloths, drapes, and wall decorations should be limited to materials with flame-spread ratings of 25 or less (Class), in accordance with NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame-Resistant Textiles and Films.

Means of Egress

General - Means of egress should be designed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 101. Some of these basic requirements include: (1) a minimum of two fire exits should be provided for each smoke compartment; (2) aisles providing access to fire exits should not be blocked; (3) fire exits should be provided with panic hardware and not be locked, such as by chains or padlocks; (4) doors located in exit paths can be equipped with hold-open devices, if those devices are designed to automatically close the doors upon activation of the premise's fire alarm system; (5) the locations of fire exits should be indicated by clearly visible signs; and (6) an emergency lighting system should be provided in means of egress.

While a minimum of two fire exits should be provided for each smoke compartment, NFPA 101 and the IBC both allow a single exit to be used when specific conditions are met. The appropriate code, as required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), should be consulted for these allowances. Generally, offices, restrooms, and similar locations with a limited number of occupants are permitted a single egress under the common path of travel allowance within NFPA 101. Horizontal sliding fire doors may be used on exits into a stairwell if the door is equipped with automatic-closure devices that are activated by a smoke detection system. When one or more smoke detectors activate, all doors leading to the stairwell should close. These doors should also be provided with a manually-operated, instantaneous release device for occupant use. Horizontally sliding fire doors should have a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour and four hours for buildings greater than three stories in height.

Mezzanines, balconies, and platforms should be provided with guards and handrails when the distance to the next level below is greater than 4 ft (1.2 m). Toe boards should be provided when persons pass below or processes are located below the platform. Mezzanines, bridges, and balconies used as part of an egress route should be a minimum of 44-in (112-cm) wide, but not less than the width of the exit door serving the area.

Business Occupancies - The maximum travel distance to fire exits from any location within business occupancies should be less than 200 ft (60 m) or 300 ft (91 m) for a building protected by an automatic sprinkler system. The travel distance in areas with high-hazard operations or equipment, such as boiler rooms, should not exceed 75 ft (23 m).

Storage Occupancies - The maximum travel distance to a fire exit should not exceed 200 ft (61 m) from any point within storage occupancies. This distance may be extended to 400 ft (122 m) if the facility is protected by an automatic sprinkler system. Travel distance to fire exits from any location within a machine shop area should be less than 200 ft (60 m) or 250 ft (73 m) for a building protected by an automatic sprinkler system. The travel distance in areas with high-hazard operations (i.e., welding and vehicle repair shops) should not exceed 75 ft (23 m).

Building Services

Electrical - The electrical system should comply with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. Some basic requirements of NFPA 70 include: (1) electrical conductors should be securely fastened in place; (2) outlet and junction boxes should be properly secured and covered and be without evidence of overheating; (3) wiring insulation in outlet and junction boxes should be in good condition and not frayed or loose; (4) an adequate number of electrical outlets/circuits should be provided to avoid overloading of circuits; (5) the use of extension cords should be prohibited; (6) electrical panels and branch circuit disconnects should be freely accessible at all times; (7) all electrical equipment should be inspected and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions; (8) the electrical systems in areas where flammable liquids are stored, used, or dispensed should be approved for Class I Division 2 locations; (9) electrical equipment used on job sites should be equipped with ground fault protection and listed for Class II Division 2 use; (10) electrical equipment in production areas should be equipped with ground fault protection and listed for Class II Division 2 use; and (11) electrical cords and connections for appliances should be inspected before use. Appliances should be listed by a nationally-recognized testing laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL).

See Client Handouts CH-25-22Electrical Equipment - Hazardous Location Classification System, and CH-25-57Thermographic Testing of Electrical Equipment, for additional information.

Heating and Air Conditioning - Heating and air-conditioning systems should comply with NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning. Air circulation systems should be designed to automatically shut down in the event of a fire. Proper maintenance of these systems will help to prevent overheating of motors, which could result in fires. Other factors to be considered include: (1) heating systems should be located in a separate area with a minimum fire-resistance rating of two hours and have no opening within ten ft (3 m) of operations in which flammable liquids are stored; (2) return-air ducts for heating systems should be at least 18 in (45.5 cm) above the floor; and (3) return-air supplies should not be drawn from flammable liquid storage areas.

Boilers that produce steam for heating present fire and explosion hazards. Gas- or oil-fired equipment should be provided with a manually-operated, emergency shutoff valve for the fuel supply. These valves should be prominently located, preferably outside the area of the operation, readily accessible, and in good working condition. Gas service should comply with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code.

Fire Suppression and Alarm Systems

Fire Alarm System - The premises should be protected by a fire alarm system that is designed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. The system should: (1) be monitored by a central station alarm company, with automatic retransmission of fire alarm signals to the fire department; (2) be covered by a maintenance and service contract and be regularly tested and inspected; (3) have both manual and automatic initiation devices that provide immediate evacuation notification to the occupants; (4) have a voice communication system that is installed to notify customers of an emergency and provide directions, as necessary; and (5) cause the release of hold-open devices on smoke compartment doors upon activation of the system.

See Fire Protection Report FP-21-02, Central Station Fire Alarm Service, for additional information.

Fire Suppression Systems -The premises should be protected by an automatic fire sprinkler system meeting the requirements of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. The degree of sprinkler protection will vary based on the type of equipment used. Functional areas of operation should be evaluated to determine the types of suppression systems required, the application rates for the systems, and any preventive maintenance required. Additionally, sprinklers protecting offices should meet the requirements for Light Hazard occupancies, while area protecting incidental storage and repair facilities should meet the requirements for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 occupancies.

Requirements for maintaining sprinkler systems are contained in NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. When service, repair, or maintenance activities will impede the sprinkler system for more than four hours (in a 24-hour period), the fire department should be notified. In addition, the building should be evacuated or a fire watch established during the period of system impairment.

Water supplies should be calculated to provide sufficient water for both automatic fire suppression and at least 500 gpm (1,892 L/min) for standpipe hose systems.

See Fire Protection Report FP-22-06Sprinklers and Their Applications, for additional information.

Properties located in areas without public water systems should be protected by alternate water sources, in accordance with NFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting.

Fire Extinguishers - Fire extinguishers should be located throughout the facility, as required by NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. Water-based fire extinguishers are the most effective at controlling fires where Class A materials (i.e., cardboard) are used and stored. Water-based fire extinguishers should be located in these storage areas, if not prohibited by local code. Employees should be trained in the care and use of fire extinguishers, including proper selection and application for the classes of fire presented. While some standards do not specifically require hands-on training, it is advisable that employees, who are expected to use fire extinguishers, receive hands-on training, conducted by knowledgeable individuals.

See Client Handout CH-25-15Fire Extinguisher Selection and Distribution, for additional information.

Storage Practices

General - Consumable supplies, such as office paper and cleaning supplies, should be stored in conformance to local fire code requirements and follow good storage practices. The specific types of storage practices will depend on the supplies and storage arrangements, as follows: (1) supplies should be stored on stable surfaces, in stable configurations, not block access to fire and emergency exits, and not be closer than 18 in (457 mm) from the bottom of a sprinkler head; (2) adequate aisles/spacing should be provided to limit congestion, prevent the spread of fire, and provide for firefighting access; (3) ordinary combustible materials, such as records, tools, and paper supplies should be stored separately from flammable liquids; (4) supplies and stock should be located at least 3 ft (0.9 m) from heating units and duct work; and (5) storage rooms, trash rooms, and similar areas should be separated from other areas by one-hour fire barriers or protected by automatic sprinklers.

Bulk Fuel - Motor and heating fuels may be stored in bulk for facility heat, backup generators, and ease of refueling vehicles. Fuel storage may be either in aboveground or underground storage tanks. In recent years, due to environmental concerns, the trend has been to utilize aboveground storage.

Underground tanks should be provided with relief venting and have fill and discharge lines that enter the tank only through the top. Tank vent pipes should be at least 1.25 in (32 mm) in diameter and arranged so that sufficient airflow during filling and offloading is provided (see Table 4.2.5.3 of NFPA 30 for additional information on this topic). Underground tanks should be located at least 1 ft (0.3 m) from any foundation, basement, or pit. Class I underground storage tanks should not be located closer than 3 ft (0.9 m) from any property line. Tanks should be covered with at least 24 in (60 cm) of dirt or 12 in (30 cm) of dirt and a 4-in (10-cm) thick slab of reinforced concrete; where vehicles pass over the tank, the tank should be covered with at least 36 in (90 cm) of dirt or 18 in (45 cm) of dirt and a 6-in (15 cm) thick slab of reinforced concrete.

Aboveground storage tanks should be arranged and protected in accordance with NFPA 30. Access to the tank area should be restricted by fencing, location, or other means to ensure that unauthorized persons cannot enter the area. All piping, filling, and offloading equipment should be protected from physical damage by either their arrangement or location or by physical barriers. Aboveground storage tanks should be equipped with venting that provides protection against overpressurization and allows for offloading of the product. Spill control for aboveground tanks should be by remote impounding or diking. The tanks should be provided with lightning protection meeting the design requirements of NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems.

Tanks used for vehicle fuels should comply with NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. These requirements include the following: (1) all liquid fuels should be stored in approved closed containers that do not exceed 60-gal (227-L) capacity and which are located outside buildings; (2) tanks or approved closed containers should be located inside motor fuel dispensing facilities; and (3) aboveground tanks and underground tanks should have a maximum individual capacity of 12,000 gal (45,400 L) and aggregate capacity of 48,000 gal (181,700 L).

Compressed Gases - Compressed gases, including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), propane, and acetylene gas used for welding, may be stored on site. These gases should be stored in a separate area, away from ignition sources, and secured to prevent tipping and damage. Storage areas should not be located near exits or stairs or adjacent to primary egress routes. Storage of compressed gases should be limited to a maximum of amounts provided by NFPA 55, Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Code. When multiple storage locations are used, they should be separated by at least 300 ft (91.4 m). To reduce the potential for loss, cylinders should be stored outside of the main building in separate structures designed for such purposes or otherwise located in an outside secured area that is constructed in accordance with NFPA 55.

Idle Pallets - When pallets are stood on edge, they create a vertical flue space that allows for rapid burning. A vertical configuration provides the greatest amount of surface area for combustion. A fire occurring at the base of a pallet will spread upward as the rising gases preheat the thin slats above it. This preheating and high airflow lead to a rapid fire spread throughout the pallet pile.

Flat stacking of pallets provides less surface area for combustion. When one pallet is placed on the next, the thin slats typically cover each other, limiting the available surface area. However, the open area between slats provides a large vertical flue space for fire spread. Arranging flat-stacked pallets at right angles to each other will limit the flue space in the pallet pile, but does not afford easy handling of the pallets.

NFPA 13 requires the inside storage of wood pallets to be protected in accordance with the requirements of subsection 12.12. Such requirements include various options for sprinkler system design based on storage arrangements. Additionally, the subsection provides detailed requirements for protecting plastic pallets when stored with and without separation (i.e., cutoff rooms) from other storage.

See Fire Protection Report FP-70-11Storage of Idle Combustible Pallets, for additional information on this topic.

Freight - On occasion, freight may be temporarily stored for restacking or transfer to other shipping containers, trucks, or trailers. Freight should be stored in stable configurations to prevent collapse. If racks are used, they should be level and not be loaded beyond their design capacity. Solid-piled stock should be placed on level ground. Palletized goods should not be of excessive weight such that they crush the lower units. Sufficient clearance around the path of fire door travel and around fire protection equipment should be maintained to ensure access for proper operation and inspection. The use of aisles for storing stock is not recommended. The variety of products stored in a warehouse requires close attention to segregation of commodities by hazard class. Warehouses should be distinctly separated into areas based on the hazards of the products stored. Employees should be knowledgeable of the hazard class for each product and locate stock in the appropriate area. Mixing of hazard classes should be avoided. Stock-locating staff should be trained to locate products only within areas designated for such products.

Typical storage arrangements include: (1) solid-piled storage consisting of cartons, boxes, crates, bales, bags, etc. in direct contact with each other. An air space is present where a pile is close to, but not touching, another pile. The materials in the piles are moved by hand or equipment; (2) palletized storage consisting of unit loads of stock placed on pallets that are usually 4 in (10.2 cm) in height and made of wood, metal, plastic, expanded plastic, or cardboard. The load is usually a cube, 3 to 4 ft (0.9 to 1.2 m) in dimensions, consisting of a single package, or block of packages, that present a top surface that can sustain the weight of additional pallet loads without crushing. The pallets are moved by a forklift truck and designed to accept the prongs of the truck; and (3) rack storage of stock, generally on pallets or in crates in a structural framework, usually of steel. Racks can be single-row, double-row, or multiple-row, with or without solid shelves.

The different vertical and horizontal air spaces or "flues" created by the various storage configurations will affect the ability of the fire suppression system to control or extinguish a fire. For example, fires in the horizontal air spaces created by pallets usually cannot be reached by water from sprinklers and thus serve to assist the spread of the fire. Likewise, high-rack storage limits the ability of sprinklers to get water to fires in the horizontal spaces of the lower-level racks.

Additionally, corrugated cardboard should not be stored on end (i.e., with the flutes running vertically) to avoid creating vertical flues that could accelerate fire growth once ignited.

Operations

Dispensing of Fuels - Fires involving liquid-fueled equipment, such as materials handling equipment, tractors, and trucks, generally result from fuel spillage during refueling operations. Liquids, such as gasoline, with a flash point below 100ºF (37.8ºC) should not be transferred between containers unless both containers are bonded and grounded. Proper bonding/grounding is required to prevent the buildup of static electricity produced by the transfer of liquids. Provisions for bonding and grounding include: (1) connecting the containers to each other electrically, before transferring the liquid; and (2) connecting both containers electrically to earth ground, before transferring the liquid.

Refueling operations should be performed by trained and designated personnel and only in specified, well-ventilated areas. Smoking should be prohibited whenever refueling is being performed. Before dispensing fuel, the equipment should be turned off, all open flames extinguished, and the area surveyed for potential ignition sources. The equipment should be checked to determine if any surfaces are hot enough to present an ignition source. Very hot surfaces should be allowed to cool, before refueling.

To prevent spills, fuel delivery nozzles should be provided with a listed or approved automatic-closing valve that will automatically stop the flow of fuel when the tank is full or if the nozzle is removed from the fill opening. Additional requirements include: (1) latch-open devices, which allow for the release of the nozzle while filling, should not be used on self-service dispensers or overhead-type dispensers, unless the hose nozzle valve will close automatically upon removal of the nozzle from the fill opening or upon impact - this will also limit spillage in case a driver accidentally attempts to drive away while the nozzle is still in the fill opening; (2) the fuel should be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed and equipped to allow control of the flow and prevent leakage or accidental discharge; (3) the pump should operate only when the dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket and the switch on the dispensing device is manually operated - these controls should also stop the pump; (4) the fuel-dispensing system should be provided with at least one clearly identified emergency shutoff device or electrical disconnect; and (5) users should be trained in the operation of the fuel-dispensing system.

Dispensing devices should be mounted on a concrete island or be otherwise protected against collision damage. Dispensing hoses should be listed or approved and have a maximum length of 18 ft (5.5 m). An emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of the break should be provided.

See Fire Protection Report FP-70-08Static Electricity, for additional information on this topic.

Housekeeping - According to NFPA statistics, trash and rubbish are the material first ignited in roughly 11 percent of the fires occurring in industrial occupancies. Used cardboard cartons, packing, and crating materials can accumulate in stock rooms and shipping/receiving areas, increasing the fire load in such areas. To minimize the danger of fire, stock rooms should be tidy and orderly, and trash should be removed to an outside trash dumpster or otherwise disposed of. Storage rooms, trash rooms, inside dumpsters, and similar areas should be separated from other areas by one-hour fire barriers or protected by automatic sprinklers.

Maintenance Operations - Some facilities may have small maintenance shops to service and repair vehicles and material handling equipment. Particular attention should be given to the storage of flammables in the shop and to the performance of operations, such as cutting and welding. Typical control measures that are recommended for maintenance shops include: (1) the electrical service should be of sufficient capacity to handle the heavy loads created by the many types of electrical equipment used in repair shops; (2) all electrical equipment should be properly grounded to prevent the generation of sparks; (3) cutting, welding, and soldering operations should use a hot-work permitting system; and (4) dust collection systems should be provided in areas where wood is cut or sanded and should be equipped with spark detection.

Equipment-cleaning operations using flammable or combustible liquids should be conducted in well-ventilated areas, away from open flames and other ignition sources. Liquid-soaked rags and paper from cleaning operations should be placed in covered metal containers and disposed of on a daily basis. Smoking should be prohibited in areas where solvents are used. Solvents and cleaners with a flash point below 100ºF (37.8ºC) should not be transferred between containers unless both containers are bonded and grounded. Proper bonding/grounding is required to prevent the buildup of static electricity produced by the transfer of liquids. Provisions for bonding and grounding include: connecting the containers to each other electrically, before transferring the liquid; and connecting both containers electrically to earth ground, before transferring the liquid.

See Fire Protection Report FP-70-08Static Electricity, for additional information on this topic.

General fire prevention recommendations for welding and cutting operations include: (1) equipment, including torches and fuel/gas cylinders, should be regularly inspected, serviced, and provided with the proper safety mechanisms; (2) storage, use, and handling of portable gas cylinders used in welding and cutting operations should be in accordance with NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders; (3) gas cylinders should be secured in storage and use to prevent them from falling or being knocked over; (4) multi-purpose, portable fire extinguishers should be kept nearby whenever hot-work operations are undertaken; and (5) a fire watch should be provided during hot-work operations and for at least one hour after operations have been completed.

Materials Handling - Materials handling operations typically involve the use of forklifts and other powered industrial trucks. Such equipment can contribute to property loss through careless operation or operation by improperly trained operators. Collision with sprinkler piping, fire doors, and other fire protection equipment and careless handling of loads, such as containers of flammable liquids, can directly contribute to fire losses. Operators of materials handling equipment should be properly trained, as per the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

The types of powered industrial trucks used should be suitable for the operating area, as required by NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, and Operation. Materials handling equipment, using gasoline, diesel fuel, or LP gas as fuel, should be garaged in a separately detached building or in a room segregated from storage areas by firewalls or fire barriers and automatic-closing fire doors. Repair operation to equipment should never be conducted in storage areas.

Fires involving materials handling equipment using liquid fuels often result from spillage during refueling. Fires involving battery-powered trucks can occur due to electrical short circuits, hot resistors, arcing and fused contacts, lint accumulation, or exploding batteries. Trained and designated personnel should perform refueling and battery-charging operations, and only in well-ventilated areas away from storage and service areas; outdoor refueling is recommended, where practicable.

See Client Handout CH-50-31, OSHA Classifications for Powered Industrial Truck, for additional information on this topic.

Smoking - Smoking should be prohibited in all buildings. If smoking is permitted, designated smoking areas should be established and "No Smoking" signs should be posted in all other areas of the facility. Improperly discarded smoking materials, such as cigarettes, can ignite combustible waste. Non-combustible receptacles for smoking materials should be provided and routinely emptied by the staff.

Emergency Preparedness

Evacuation Plan - In order to ensure that employees are prepared to evacuate the facility, the following practices should be followed: (1) employees should check the exit doors and exit paths on a daily basis to ensure access during an emergency; (2) emergency evacuation drills should be conducted on a semi-annual basis; (3) during evacuation drills, all of the alarm components should be activated; and (4) personnel should be assigned to assist with the orderly evacuation of the occupants.

See Fire Protection Reports FP-45-10, Emergency Action Plans (OSHA 1910.38), and FP-45-15, Fire Prevention Plans, for additional information on this topic.

Salvage and Recovery Operations - In the event of a fire, salvage and recovery operations can help to reduce the severity of the loss and maintain business continuity. Salvage procedures, such as covering contents to prevent water and smoke damage and removing excess water and smoke from the building, should be undertaken as soon as practicable.

Smoke removal capability should be provided. Examples of smoke removal equipment include mechanical air-handling systems, powered exhaust fans, roof-mounted gravity vents, and perimeter gravity vents. Whichever system is used, it should be designed for manual actuation by the fire department, thus allowing personnel to coordinate the smoke removal (ventilation) with mop-up operations.

The water supply to the sprinkler system should be maintained during firefighting and mop-up operations and should not be turned off until the fire has been completely extinguished or is under the control of hose streams. In any event, personnel should be stationed to reopen valves in the event the fire rekindles. A fire watch should be maintained until the sprinkler system has been restored to operation.

See Fire Protection Report FP-42-02, Working with Public Responders to Reduce Losses, for additional information.

Incendiarism and Arson

Basic protection for incendiarism and arson requires that the property be secured from unauthorized entry and equipment protected, as follows: (1) if feasible, a fence should protect the perimeter of the property; (2) all exterior areas of the property should be illuminated; (3) trees and vegetation should be cut back to provide a clear space of at least 100-ft (30.4-m) clearance around the perimeter of the property; (4) combustible materials and trash in yard areas should be properly discarded; (5) locks should be installed on all exterior doors; and (6) ground-level and below-grade windows and other accessible openings should be secured.

As a deterrent to arson, guard patrols should be provided for the exterior property and interior areas. The patrols should be performed on a regular, but random, basis and should be monitored and supervised by central station service. During non-operating hours, the frequency of patrols should be increased.

To increase the effectiveness of patrols, a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system may be installed. CCTV extends the range of patrol personnel, and the presence of cameras serves as a deterrent to criminals and vandals. However, CCTV should supplement patrols and not act as a replacement for them. When the CCTV system is provided with tape backup (i.e., video tape recorder), a record of events is available for future investigative purposes.

See Fire Protection Report FP-42-01, Incendiarism and Arson, and Crime Prevention Report CP-30-10, Physical Protection Afforded by Buildings, for additional information on these topics.

Property - Inland Marine Exposure Assessment

The following areas should be reviewed in order to assess the inland marine exposures of a general freight trucking company:

Goods in Transit

q  Is there a program to address employee theft?

q  Is access to storage areas restricted?

q  Is there a separate, designated waiting area for non-employee drivers?

q  Have special procedures been established for the temporary storage of high-value cargo?

q  Is the property in transit subject to theft or hijacking because of its high value?

q  What procedures are followed when vehicles are left unattended?

q  Is there a program to train drivers regarding on-the-road security?

q  Are vehicles provided with good locks and vehicle alarm systems?

q  Have there been prior losses involving goods in transit?

Motor Truck Cargo Liability

q  Are bills of lading issued for all shipments?

q  Are accurate records kept on all shipments?

q  What is the average maximum value of shipments?

q  Are subcontractors prequalified?

q  Have all aspects of the transportation of goods been reviewed?

Business Interruption

q  Is there an emergency preparedness plan to respond to emergencies, such as fires, floods, or natural disasters?

q  Is the facility in compliance with local building and fire prevention codes?

q  What is the date of the last inspection of the facility by the local fire department?

q  Have any renovations and/or alterations been made since the inspection?

q  Is the trucking facility protected by an automatic sprinkler system that meets applicable codes and standards?

q  Are fire safety inspections conducted on a regular basis?

q  Does the business operate independently, or is it part of a chain, such that a temporary business interruption could be handled by another facility in the chain?

q  Are the premises owned or leased?

q  Does the business have multiple locations such that business can be shifted to another location in the event one location suffers a temporary shutdown?

q  Is the facility in a stand-alone building, or is it located in a multi-occupancy building such that a fire in adjoining premises could spread to the facility?

q  What is the potential of a mechanical failure causing a shutdown in operation?

q  Is there a safety management program in place?

q  To what extent is the movement of goods in the facility automated?

q  Is good housekeeping maintained throughout the facility?

q  What is the financial condition of the business?

q  Does the business experience a peak season?

q  What are the average values of goods in storage during the peak season and at other times?

q  What are the contractual arrangements with customers to cover a temporary shutdown?

Accounts Receivable

q  Is there a well-organized and supervised bookkeeping system in place?

q  Are there general control procedures to protect records, and are these controls enforced?

q  Are accounts receivables' records stored in record protection equipment and backup records stored off-premises?

q  Is the facility protected by automatic sprinklers and smoke detectors?

q  Is the fire alarm system connected to a central station monitoring service?

q  Does the facility have a "No Smoking on Premises" policy, and is it strictly enforced?

q  Are good housekeeping practices maintained throughout the facility as a means of controlling fire hazards?

q  Are goods stored in an organized manner?

q  Are there contingency plans in place to retrieve and recover damaged records?

Valuable Papers/Records

q  Are there general control procedures to protect records, and are these controls enforced?

q  Are records stored in the appropriate record protection equipment?

q  Is the facility protected by automatic sprinklers and smoke detectors?

q  Is the fire alarm system connected to a central station monitoring service?

q  Does the facility have a "No Smoking on Premises" policy, and is it strictly enforced?

q  Are good housekeeping practices maintained throughout the facility as a means of controlling fire hazards?

q  Are there contingency plans in place to retrieve and recover damaged records?

Electronic Data Processing (EDP) Equipment and Media

q  What are the ages, number of, and condition of all computers, fax and copy machines, cash registers, and other special electronic equipment used by the facility?

q  Does the facility have computerized accounting, recordkeeping, or inventory control systems?

q  Is there any custom-developed software in use?

q  Are backup files for computer systems kept in record protection equipment or at an off-site location and backed up on a regular basis?

q  Are computer systems used to control facility equipment?

Equipment

q  What are the ages, condition, and quantity of equipment exposed to loss?

q  Is inventory of all equipment taken on a regular basis?

q  Is the facility secured against theft?

Signs

q  Is each type sign described in detail, indicating the age, type of material, description of the size and type of lettering, and their location on the facility?

q  How are the signs constructed, at what height from street level are they located, and how are they fixed to the structure?

q  Are signs attached or of the freestanding type?

q  Are outside signs subject to damage from fire, vandalism, natural disasters, or moving vehicles?

q  Are electronic signs used to generate advertising revenue for the business?

Property - Inland Marine Exposure Controls

The following information can assist in controlling the inland marine exposures of a general freight trucking company:

Goods in Transit

General - The most common perils affecting goods in transit are fire, theft and embezzlement, flood, collision or overturn of conveyance, missed delivery, wear and tear, deterioration, loss of refrigeration, and excessive heat. The potential for loss due to these perils depends in part on the nature or type of goods being transported.

A program to protect goods in transit should provide for strict accountability of cargo at all stages of handling by establishing written instructions for the proper handling of cargo and the flow of all cargo documents. Records of all overages, shortages, and damaged items should be maintained and reviewed periodically for indications of trends. All instances of cargo loss should be investigated immediately.

Goods are also subject to theft by employees. For more detailed information on employee theft prevention, see the Property – Crime Exposure Controls section of this report.

Security - The security program for goods in transit should include access control measures and security for the goods on arrival at the facility, while being stored, and while being transported.

Access onto the property should be controlled by a fence and lockable gates. Access into buildings should be controlled through designated entrances and exits. Security guards should be stationed at perimeter gates to inspect and manifest all cargo carrier vehicles upon arrival at or departure from the facility. All employees and visitors should enter and exit the terminal enclosure through one monitored door or gate. All parcels should be declared upon entry to the facility and inspected upon departure. All vehicle pedestrian gates, perimeter fence lines, and other outer areas should be provided with adequate illumination.

Identification cards should be issued to all employees. The cards should have, as a minimum, a photograph of the bearer, the bearer's signature, and the signature of the individual authorized to issue the card. Employees should be required to display their I.D. cards at all times; at the very least, they should be required to display them on demand. For large facilities, the use of color codes on identification cards should be considered and a code established for specific buildings, floors, or areas. In this way, individuals not authorized to be in a particular area can be readily identified. The stock for the cards should be controlled to ensure that the system cannot be easily compromised.

Visitors, including non-employee drivers and independent contractor personnel, should be required to wear a visitor's badge. However, if employees are not required to wear badges, visitors have only to remove theirs to look like employees. A messenger center for packages, lunches, and other deliveries should be established. Messengers, non-employee drivers, and independent contractor personnel should not be allowed to roam the building freely.

Parking areas should be located outside of fenced, operational areas, or at least a substantial distance from cargo handling and storage areas or buildings. Employee parking should be by permit only, and employees exiting to the parking area from the cargo area, or secured area, should be required to pass through an area under supervision of management or security personnel. Employees desiring to return to their private vehicles during hours of employment should be required to notify management and/or security personnel. Temporary parking permits that allow parking in a designated area under security controls should be issued to vendors and other visitors.

The facility may serve as a transfer point for cargo. Non-employee drivers should log with the dispatcher immediately upon arrival at the facility. Management should inspect cargo seals for tampering, comparing seal numbers with shipping documents, and oversee the unloading of cargo. A signed acknowledgement for the receipt of cargo should be obtained.

Non-employee drivers should not be allowed access to cargo areas and areas where shipping documents are located. Separate waiting areas should be provided for them. Dock personnel should be dissuaded from fraternizing with non-employee drivers or independent contractor personnel.

High-value cargo should be listed on bills of lading by code numbers or as general freight to conceal its identity. High-strength cargo seals should be used to secure valuable merchandise. A log of all cargo seals should be maintained and unissued seals stored in a secured place with access limited only to authorized personnel.

Adequate space capable of being locked, sealed, or otherwise secured should be provided at each cargo handling building for the temporary storage of high-value cargo and packages. When such cargo must be transported a substantial distance from the point of unloading to the special security area, vehicles capable of being locked or otherwise secured should be used. This will also serve to protect the goods against employee theft. Consideration should be given to: (1) constructing special security rooms, cribs, or vaults to resist forcible entry on all sides and access from above; (2) locating such special security areas, where possible, so that management and/or security personnel may keep them under continuous observation; (3) releasing merchandise from such an area only in the presence of authorized supervisors and/or security personnel; (4) logging all movements of cargo in or out of a special security area, showing date, time, condition of cargo upon receipt, name of trucker, company making a pickup, and registration number of equipment used; and (5) performing a physical inventory of secured areas on a regular basis. For additional information, see Inland Marine Report IM-30-04High-Value Commodity Storage.

Trailers should be provided with vehicle alarm systems, since they can be deterrents to theft. Alarm systems should be tested daily and activated whenever the vehicle is parked. Some alarm systems allow for connection directly to the terminal alarm system when parked. Signs indicating that an alarm system is installed should be clearly visible on the vehicle. The alarm systems should provide for 90-day maintenance checks and a record kept of all testing and service. Loaded cargo trailers should not be parked near the fence line. They should be secured with kingpin locks and parked in such a way as to prevent easy unauthorized hook-up.

One of the primary considerations for the security of goods in transit is to assure that the vehicle is in good mechanical condition and capable of completing the trip. High quality padlocks or other locking devices should be used on the cargo doors of all pickup and delivery units. High security cargo seals that require tools for removal also provide a deterrent to theft. Where a vehicle has both high-value and normal cargo on it, the high-value cargo should be loaded in the front of the vehicle, behind the normal cargo, to make theft as difficult as possible. The integrity of cargo seals and the operation of truck alarm systems should be inspected prior to departure from the terminal.

Routing should be carefully planned and, where possible, travel should be restricted to major roads. During relief or meal stops, trucks should be parked in an area where they can be observed and parking in unlighted or remote areas should be avoided. When leaving the vehicle, the engine should be turned off and keys removed from the ignition, windows rolled up, all doors and compartments locked, and the vehicle alarm system activated.

Every effort should be made to arrange for the expeditious delivery of high-value cargo. Unnecessary stops should be avoided until the goods are delivered. Food and rest areas should be selected with security in mind. Where communication devices are available, scheduled contacts between the dispatcher and the vehicle can be maintained. The driver can be instructed to use a particular 'code' word, if the vehicle has been hijacked, to advise the dispatcher of the situation. For vehicles without communication devices on board, the driver should telephone the dispatcher when leaving the shipper or arriving at the consignee, as appropriate. When contact has not been made by the driver as scheduled, or within a reasonable period of time, an investigation should begin immediately. High-visibility identification, such as numbers painted on the roof of trailers, can provide for detection from overhead. When high-value or sensitive cargo is transported through high-risk areas, consideration should be given to providing an unmarked escort vehicle equipped with a communications device.

To avoid being hijacked, drivers should be alert for any suspicious activity around the vehicle and carefully check the inside for hijackers prior to departing each stop. If a vehicle is observed following the truck, the driver should radio in or pull into a populated area and telephone for help. In general, drivers should be instructed to: keep cab doors locked while driving; not pick up hitchhikers; not assist stranded motorists, but radio or telephone for help; and follow established written procedures for the proper handling of cargo while in transit and at transfer points.

Vehicle alarm systems are intended to alert others of forced entry into the vehicle and serve to deter or discourage theft. These systems generally consist of detectors, a control module, and a sounding device. The detector senses the intrusion and signals the control module, which activates the sounding device. Some systems are designed to send a signal to a remote location to initiate an investigation.

A vehicle tracking system can provide for emergency or distress aid, as well as help in the recovery of a stolen vehicle. These systems depend on a radio transmitter hidden in the vehicle that can communicate with a monitoring station to help locate it. In one system, when the vehicle is stolen, the driver or dispatcher reports the theft to the police and provides the vehicle's identification number. The police then activate the hidden transmitter, which sends a coded signal to local patrol cars equipped with receiving equipment. Usually, the receiver in the police car can cover a 25-square-mile zone. The major limitation of this system is that the theft has to be reported before tracking can begin. Another type of vehicle recovery system uses geo-positional satellites as the communication link between the vehicle and monitoring station. A transmitter in the vehicle sends a signal to the satellite, which relays it to the monitoring station, pinpointing its location. This information can then be provided to the local police. These systems can provide for emergency/distress signals, as well as allowing the monitoring station to disable the vehicle.

For more detailed information, see Inland Marine Report IM-30-00, Cargo Security.

Motor Truck Cargo Liability

General - Motor truck cargo liability insurance for a trucking company (both common and contract carriers) would cover the company's liability for damage to cargo while being transported in its truck. The policy may be extended to cover property in terminals and on loading platforms. When the trucking company is the owner of the goods, the policy provides direct property damage coverage.

Bills of Lading - A bill of lading, which serves both as a shipping contract and as a receipt for the goods shipped, should be issued. The bill of lading shows the date the goods were shipped, what was shipped, by whom, via what carrier, and the destination. It also specifies the trucking company's liability. Generally, the trucking company is liable for the safe delivery of the property entrusted to it, not only while on the company's vehicles, but also while temporarily at terminals awaiting shipment. Bills of lading frequently state a dollar limitation on the value of the cargo or specify a dollar limit of liability. It is usually established according to some unit of measuring the property shipped, such as a specified dollar amount per pound of cargo.

All goods should be inspected before acceptance. The purpose of the inspection is to verify that the goods conform to the Bill of Lading and are in good condition. Any goods found damaged or shorted inventory counts should be noted. If damage is significant, the owner of the goods should be notified to consider whether to accept the goods.

Subcontractors - Where subcontractors are hired to ship goods, such trucking companies should be prequalified. This is to determine that they have the necessary procedures in place to transport the goods safely. Contracts should be reviewed to determine who would be liable in the event of an accident.

Transportation Procedures - An evaluation of all aspects of the transportation cycle should be considered, including the shipping loss history. Good packing and handling methods should be used, and all loads should be adequately secured for transit. Only qualified drivers should be allowed to operate vehicles used for deliveries. Goods should be inspected for signs of damage prior to unloading at the customer's site. Vehicles should be kept well maintained and in good operating condition.

Steps should be taken to identify all hazardous materials (HAZMAT) that are being shipped. For information on the shipping of HAZMAT, see the Commercial Automobile Exposure Controls section of this report.

Goods that are temperature-sensitive should be stored according to industry practice, unless other conditions are specified on the Bill of Lading. If goods must be relocated, or stored under conditions other than those specified, the owner of the goods should be notified and asked to ratify the changes. For more information regarding temperature-sensitive goods, see Business Links Report BL-50-02, Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage.

Goods may be damaged from fires at terminals and while in transit. A fire prevention program should be developed to address this exposure.

For detailed information on transportation issues, see the Commercial Automobile Exposure Controls section of this report.

Business Interruption

Emergency Planning - Business-interruption insurance protects against both a direct loss of income resulting from a fire or other natural disaster temporarily closing the facility and also the extra expenses incurred for fixed costs and retaining key employees. Most machinery and equipment are generally available and, in the event of a temporary closing, the business could be back in business in a relatively short time.

To limit business interruption losses from natural disaster, there should be an emergency preparedness plan. Such planning is essential for successfully minimizing any adverse effects of an emergency or disaster on a business and its operations. Additionally, records of natural disasters in the area should be obtained and analyzed. This analysis could help to determine the emergencies that should be considered in the plan.

Contingency plans should be developed to bring the business back into operation as soon as possible. Reserve parts or equipment should be kept in stock in case of an emergency; at the very least, the availability of spare parts and equipment should be determined. Having a backup power supply in case of an extended electrical power outage may allow the business to continue limited production.

See Inland Marine Report IM-20-01, Controlling the Business Interruption Exposure, for additional information.

Fire Protection - To limit business interruption losses from fire, the facility should be designed and constructed to minimize the potential for fire and, in the event of a fire, to contain the fire to the room of origin. For detailed information on fire protection, see the Property – Fire Exposure Controls section of this report.

Accounts Receivables

Records Protection - A business that suffers a loss due to fire, flood, or other natural disaster may be unable to collect accounts receivables and/or other monies owed. Plans should be developed to protect accounts receivables. Records should be duplicated and updated on a regular basis, with off-site storage of backup records. Otherwise, accounts receivable records should be stored in the appropriate record protection equipment that is used only for such purpose (for information on record protection equipment, see Fire Protection Report FP-33-02, Record Protection Equipment.). Contingency plans should be in place to retrieve and recover damaged records.

Fire Protection - Automatic sprinklers, smoke detectors, or other fire protection systems that are intended to protect the facility also will serve to protect accounts receivables. Smoking should be prohibited throughout the facility or restricted to specifically designated areas.

Valuable Papers and Records

Valuable papers and records can be documents that are needed to operate the business or items of historical value. The records can include customers' names and address, credit accounts, customer inventory records, filed tariff and receipt record books, contractual agreements, leasing agreements, insurance documents, inspection and audit records, deeds, and mortgages.

Valuable papers and records should be stored in the appropriate record protection equipment. Automatic sprinklers, smoke detectors, or other fire protection systems that are intended to protect the facility also will serve to protect accounts receivables and valuable papers/records. Smoking should be restricted to designated areas.

EDP Equipment and Media

Emergency Planning – Electronic data processing (EDP) equipment and media include computer hardware and software, specialized software, computer data, and storage media, including discs and magnetic tapes. Cash registers, telephone systems, and fax and copy machines can also be included. The exposure to loss for EDP equipment and media can include: fire, flood, smoke, extreme heat, or other natural disasters; computer or cash register fraud, errors, and omissions; power outages and brownouts; lightning-induced electrical surges (e.g., spikes of electricity); and burglary and theft.

EDP equipment and media should not be located in basement locations to limit damage from floods and should be provided with surge protection to protect against lightning-induced electrical surges. Backup copies of specialized software, as well as of critical data, such as personnel and financial records, should be stored in the appropriate record protection equipment, or at an off-premises location.

Fire Protection - An automatic sprinkler system can help to minimize losses from a fire. In addition, computer media should be stored in the appropriate record protection equipment.

Security - Methods to protect computer hardware from theft include marking systems and physical security measures. While marking will not prevent the theft of the hardware, it can serve as a deterrent and, in the event it is stolen, it may help in identifying the hardware in the event it is recovered.

Equipment

Inventory - The types of equipment that are exposed to loss from fire, theft, and natural disasters include: trucks; materials-handling equipment, including hydraulic lifts, hand trucks, and dollies; hand tools; automotive repair and maintenance equipment; air-conditioning and heating equipment; cleaning/maintenance/equipment; general office equipment, including audiovisual equipment, televisions, VCRs, and radio and stereo equipment; vending machines; security monitoring cameras; and public address systems.

A list of the ages, condition, and serial numbers for all equipment leased or rented should be maintained in a secure location, preferably off premises in a fire-resistive safe.

Security - All equipment should be secured against vandalism and theft. Expensive equipment should be protected from theft by etching with identification numbers. A list of the numbers and descriptions of the equipment should be registered with the police and copies of the list kept in a secure location. All high-value, specialty equipment should be placed in a secure location when not in use. An accurate inventory and videotapes and/or photographs of all specialized equipment should be kept. Portable equipment, when not in use, should be kept in a locked storage room or cabinet.

Signs and Awnings - Outdoor signs and awnings can be exposed to loss. Generally, outdoor signs less than 12.0 ft (3.66 m) above the sidewalk are not covered under an inland marine policy. The types of signs exposed to losses include neon, florescent, automatic or mechanical electrical signs, and lamps. Signs can be of the freestanding type or on a raised pole. Additional signs may be attached to the main building or the roofing.

Signs and awnings should be designed to withstand expected weather conditions and properly supported to prevent toppling. Signs should be located with adequate setbacks from parking areas or roadways. In locations where there is a potential for a sign being struck by vehicles, it should be elevated or protected by safety barriers. Properly illuminating signs will help to deter theft or vandalism. An inventory of all signs and awnings should be maintained.

Digital/LED billboards are heavier than traditional frame billboards, so structural design of the foundation and support structure is important. The 2009 International Building Code has only a generic requirement for signs in Sec. 3107 that the signs be "designed, constructed, and maintained according to the provisions of the code." Appendix H of the code contains non-mandatory recommendations for design including design loadings, combustibility of materials, etc. The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has developed security guidelines for digital billboards, which are available to members.

Workers' Compensation Exposure Assessment

For trucking industry workers, an assessment of exposures to injuries and illnesses should focus on strains, falls, machine hazards, powered industrial trucks, noise, and hazardous substances. However, in analyzing the level of safety for any organization, consideration should be given to management's concern and actions in establishing safe work procedures and workers' involvement in creating a safe work environment.

Management

q  Is there a company-specific written safety program, which has been formally endorsed by senior management?

q  Has a hazard assessment been conducted for each task?

q  Are workers provided with safety training appropriate for the work that they do?

q  Are employees retrained as needed due to changes in the workplace or personal protective equipment (PPE), or when observations indicate that the original training is ineffective?

q  Are training sessions documented as to the dates of training, information covered, and who attended?

q  Do the workers participate in the selection of PPE?

q  Is there a written certification identifying the job assessed, who conducted the assessment, and when the assessment was performed?

q  Is PPE readily available to workers?

q  Has an emergency action plan been established to cover fires, spills, and other emergencies?

q  Is training integrated into the daily operations and conducted on a regular basis?

q  Are less-experienced workers properly supervised?

Strain Prevention

q  Do workers receive training that includes safe lifting techniques and avoidance of awkward postures when moving and working on equipment?

q  Are workers encouraged to obtain help when lifting or moving heavy objects?

q  Are procedures for two-person lifts used where appropriate?

q  Are back injuries investigated to determine the causes and identify needed procedural changes?

q  Does the employer match work assignments with employees' capabilities?

q  Are workers required to report all back injuries immediately, and are they referred for medical treatment?

q  Are manual materials handling equipment provided to assist workers in lifting or moving materials?

Fall Prevention

q  Are good housekeeping procedures emphasized?

q  Are all areas kept neat and orderly to prevent same-level slips, trips, and falls?

q  Is trash removed on a daily basis?

q  Are warning signs used during and after a floor has been mopped or waxed?

q  Is adequate lighting provided throughout the work area, including aisles, stairways, and storage rooms?

q  Is worn, torn, or loose flooring immediately repaired?

q  Are spills cleaned up immediately and floors kept clean and dry?

q  Are wiring and telephone cords properly secured to prevent tripping hazards?

q  Is slip-resistant flooring or mats used in appropriate locations?

q  Are workers equipped with slip-resistant footwear?

q  Is a snow removal and deicing program provided for parking lots and sidewalks during winter months?

q  Are standard safety railings provided for all open-sided floors or platforms 4 ft (1.22 m) or more above the adjacent floor or ground level?

q  Are the openings to elevated loading docks protected with guard rails, nets, or other fall protection systems?

q  Are toeboards or other devices provided to protect employees working below from being struck by falling tools and materials?

q  Are fall restraint or personal fall arrest systems used where appropriate?

Machinery/Equipment Hazards

q  Is equipment routinely maintained?

q  Have workers been trained on the safe use of equipment they will use?

q  Are emergency response procedures involving machine hazards written and routinely practiced?

q  Does the facility have a lockout/tagout program (e.g., for conveyers)?

q  Have workers been trained in the lockout/tagout procedures used by outside contract personnel doing maintenance on company machines?

q  Is PPE provided and used by workers when conducting operations involving machine hazards?

q  Is PPE provided and used by workers when using bench grinders, right-angle grinders, and other hazardous tools/equipment?

q  Is equipment properly guarded [e.g., all points of operation of equipment and power transmission equipment, such as belts and pulleys on motors, compressors, conveyors, rotating shafts, sprockets, and gears)]?

q  Are all machine guards factory-installed?

q  Have any factory-installed machine guards been modified for local use?

q  Is equipment that is operated by electricity, or which has any electrical connections, effectively grounded to limit the risk of shock or electrocution?

q  Do machines have emergency stop buttons or stop bars to cut power?

q  Have employees been trained on the safe use of compressed air?

q  Have employees been provided with proper PPE for tasks involving the use of compressed air or compressed-air equipment?

q  Have workers been trained on the safe use of tools and equipment, such as vehicle lifts, chisels, grinders, jacks, and compressed-air equipment, they will use?

q  Are stands, jacks, portable shop cranes and other shop lifting devices labeled as conforming to the ASME safety standard on portable automotive lifting devices (ASME PALD)?

q  Are portable automotive lifting devices free of visible damage and defects?

Hand and Power Tools

q  Have workers been trained on the safe use of hand and power tools they will use?

q  Are tools inspected on a daily basis before use and if found to be deficient (mushroomed heads on chisels, punches, etc.), removed from service?

q  Are tools double-insulated or fitted with three-prong (grounded) electrical cords?

q  Are all tool guards factory-installed?

q  Have any factory-installed tool guards been modified for local use?

Powered Industrial Trucks

q  Have workers been trained on the safe use of powered industrial trucks?

q  Are powered industrial trucks routinely inspected and maintained?

q  Do powered industrial trucks have backup controls, and are they designed to protect the operator?

Noise

q  Have noise control and hearing conservation programs been implemented to evaluate and control workplace noise levels in areas where high noise exposures exist?

q  Are hearing protection devices provided and used by workers to prevent exposure to excessive noise levels?

Hazardous Substances

q  Is a hazard communication program in place, and are workers trained in the proper handling, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances, such as battery acid and certain chemical cleaning agents?

q  Are fuels properly stored and refueling conducted outdoors?

q  Have all workers been trained on Safety Data Sheets, health effects, labels, proper handling, storage, emergency procedures, etc., associated with hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard?

q  Is there an inventory of hazardous chemicals that are stored, handled, or used by workers?

q  Are Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) obtained, updated, and made available to workers?

q  Are all workers able to understand the SDS, hazards and safety requirements?

q  Are hazardous chemicals properly labeled?

q  Is PPE provided for workers who use or handle chemicals in accordance with the hazard assessments that are required to be conducted for each job?

q  Are chemically-soiled materials and equipment either decontaminated or discarded?

q  Are exhaust ventilation systems installed at the facility or on applicable machines to reduce any air contaminants, such as diesel exhaust, solvents and dust that may be generated?

q  Are the exhaust ventilation systems adequate to control exposures to exhaust, dusts, flammable/toxic vapors, and other hazardous substances?

q  If trucks engines need to idle, is idling time kept to a minimum?

q  Are idling trucks located outside, or if inside, are they equipped with adequate local or general exhaust to minimize exposure to the engine emissions?

q  Are good housekeeping measures employed to keep the amount of contaminants on surfaces to a minimum?

q  Are flammable and combustible liquids stored in approved containers?

q  Are waste removal procedures for chemicals established in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations?

q  Are workers advised to exercise good personal hygiene practices (e.g., frequent hand-washing) when working with chemicals?

q  Are workers trained to handle incidental spills of hazardous chemicals, such as small quantities of cleaning agents, acids, or fuel, which they may encounter when conducting operations?

q  If larger spills of hazardous chemicals occur, is remediation outsourced or will workers perform the clean up?

q  If workers perform larger cleanups, have they been trained in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations?

q  Are emergency overhead showers and eye wash stations provided?

Workers' Compensation Exposure Controls

The following provides general recommendations for controlling workers' compensation exposures typically associated with trucking company workers at a general freight transportation warehouse. In addition, OSHA has established a resource webpage for the trucking industry, which can be accessed at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/trucking_industry/safetyinfo.html.

Management Commitment

General - Management commitment to creating a safe work environment is essential to controlling injuries and illnesses. If possible, a single individual responsible for safety should be designated and report to the owner or president of the company. Commitment by senior management can be recognized not only by an allocation of funds for safety equipment and training, but also by senior management actions on a daily basis, including written endorsement of safety personnel and policies.

Establish Safe Work Procedures - Management must establish and insist on strict adherence to safe work practices. Management also should lead by example and perform all tasks in a safe manner. A formal disciplinary policy should be established to outline how safety infractions will be enforced.

Written Safety Program - The organization should have a written safety program to help stress the seriousness of working safely and to help identify all the exposures that need to be addressed. Outlining the expected safe work procedures will aid in on-the-job training and set a foundation for unsupervised work. Management should provide initial and continuous safety training. The safety program should be developed by a safety committee, and the program should be reviewed at least annually and more often if changes in the workplace or procedures warrant a review.

Employee Training - Training is an essential part of every employer's safety and health program for protecting workers from injuries and illnesses. Research has shown that those who are new on the job have a higher rate of accidents and injuries than more experienced workers. New employees must be trained and properly supervised on the tasks they will perform. Employees should be retrained as needed due to changes in the workplace, PPE, or when observations indicate that the original training is ineffective. Training should be integrated into the daily operations and conducted on a regular basis. It is highly recommended that the employer keep a record of all safety and health training. Records can provide evidence of the employer's good faith and compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards.

Safety Equipment – Employers must conduct personal protective equipment (PPE) hazard assessments for all tasks to determine if PPE is required and if so, to select the proper PPE for the job. A written certification must be completed identifying the job assessed, who conducted the assessment, and when the assessment was performed. All workers should have and use the proper safety equipment and PPE, such as eye, hand, foot, hearing, and head protection, for the task at hand in accordance with the PPE hazard assessment for that task. Workers should be responsible for inspecting their PPE each day. Workers who have a voice in the selection of PPE will generally be more receptive to its use. For additional information, see Occupational Safety Report OS-12-39, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Hazard Assessments.

Emergency Preparedness – An emergency action plan (EAP), as required by the OSHA, should be established to ensure the safety of workers in the event of a fire, spill, or other emergency. A well-developed emergency plan and proper employee training (such that employees understand their roles and responsibilities within the plan) will result in fewer and less severe employee injuries and less structural damage to the facility during emergencies. Means of egress should be designed in accordance to local code, and the locations of fire exits should be indicated by clearly visible signs. See the Property - Fire Exposure Controls section of this report for more detailed information.

OSHA Guidelines – OSHA has issued voluntary safety and health program management guidelines to encourage employers to do more than just comply with regulations to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses. The language in these guidelines is general so that it may be broadly applied. The guidelines, a distillation of successfully applied safety and health management practices, may be found at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=FEDERAL_REGISTER&p_id=12909.

Additional information on establishing safety and health management programs can also be found on OSHA's Injury and Illness Prevention Programs website at http://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/safetyhealth/index.html.

Strain Prevention

Prevention Program - Management should have a strain prevention program that outlines the procedures for the safe use of equipment, provides criteria for two-person lifts, and reinforces the need for storing heavy objects at waist level. Employers should match work assignments with employees' capabilities, and workers should be required to report all back injuries immediately and referred for medical treatment. Back injuries should be investigated to determine the causes and identify needed procedural changes. Consider modifications to equipment, such as adjustable height workstations, to reduce strains.

Employee Training - Much of the success in preventing strain injuries can be attributed to understanding the exposure. Workers can help to prevent a back injury or strain by using ergonomic-assistive equipment to move heavy objects, reducing awkward postures, bending, and twisting, and getting help with heavy loads. Manual materials handling equipment should be sized for the task and the user. Additionally, management should know which workers have back problems and ensure they are lifting safely, such as by using a buddy system. The best prevention technique to control strain injuries is the individual recognizing the hazard and then taking the appropriate action. There should be no stigma attached with asking for help.

Fall Prevention

Walking Surface - Management should consider the following to reduce worker exposure to falls: (1) require workers to wear shoes with a slip-resistant sole; (2) have workers clean up liquid spills as quickly as possible; (3) coat building steps with a non-slip material; (4) keep walkways and parking areas clear and unobstructed from debris, snow, and ice; (5) provide adequate lighting indoors and outdoors, including on walkways and in parking areas; and (6) inspect and properly maintain all portable ladders and stepstools, (7) situate equipment in such a manner that it does not create slip, trip, or fall hazards.

Platforms – A standard safety railing should be provided for all open-sided floors or platforms (e.g., storage lofts) 4 ft (1.22 m) or more above the adjacent floor or ground level. Loading dock entrances should be protected with guardrails, nets, or other fall protection system. A toeboard also should be provided with the safety railing wherever people walk beneath. Permanent aisles should be appropriately marked to indicate access areas. Fall restraint (often called positioning or travel restraint) and/or personal fall protection systems may also be used to prevent worker falls.

Machinery/Equipment Hazards

General Requirements - The exposure to moving machine parts, such as rotating shafts, and pulleys can cause worker deaths, as well as disabling injuries. Procedures should be established to ensure workers are trained on the safe use and operation of machinery/equipment. In addition, procedures should be established to ensure inspections and preventative maintenance are performed on all machinery and equipment. Emergency response procedures involving machine hazards should be written and routinely practiced.

PPE, such as safety shoes, gloves, safety glasses, goggles, face shields, etc., should be provided, and used based on the hazard assessment conducted for the specific task. Workers should be advised not to wear loose-fitting clothing or jewelry when operating equipment and machinery. Workers with long hair should be advised to tie it back.

Machine Guarding General – All points of operation of equipment and power transmission equipment (e.g., rollers, belts and pulleys on motors, rotating shafts, gears, sprockets, compressors, etc.), such as those found on conveyers, should be properly guarded. Machine guards should be factory-installed, and they should not have been modified.

In controlling machine hazards, engineering controls should be given first priority. The main engineering control is a guard. There are many ways to guard a machine. The type of operation, size, or shape of stock, work being performed on the material, method of handling, and production requirements are some of the factors that help determine the appropriate safeguarding method for an individual machine. All moving parts that may cause injury should be safeguarded. These include the point of operation, the power transmission apparatus, and rotary or reciprocating parts. There are three main types of guards: fixed guards, interlocked guards, and self-adjusting guards.

Fixed guards refer to guards that are a permanent part of the machine, but are not dependent upon moving parts of the machine to perform their guarding function. A fixed guard that can be manually set into the appropriate position before the machine is operated is referred to as an adjustable guard. A fixed guard that completely separates the user from the hazard is called an enclosure guard.

Interlocked guards refer to guards that are connected to a mechanism that cuts power to the machine when the guards are tripped or moved out of position.

Self-adjusting guards refer to guards that adjust automatically to the thickness and movement of the stock material. An example is a floating guard on a table saw that rises up and floats along the top of the stock while the stock is guided across the saw.

Guards should be in working order and appropriate and practical for the machinery. Guards should have adequate strength to resist blows and strains and should be constructed to protect operators from flying splinters and machine parts, such as broken saw teeth, cutting heads, and tools.

Additional information on machine guarding can be accessed at the OSHA websites: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/machineguarding/index.html and http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/machineguarding/index.html.

Conveyors - Routine inspections and preventative maintenance should be performed on all conveyors. Conveyors found to be in need of repair should be removed from service until restored to a safe operating condition. On/off buttons should be color-coded for easy accessibility located at the front and back ends of the conveyor. In addition, emergency controls should be available at various intervals along the conveyor and should be clearly identified. Protective guarding on the sides or under the conveyor should be installed to prevent materials from falling in areas where workers may walk. Safety guards should be provided for all gear assemblies, chain and sprocket drives, v-belt and pulley drives, and all other pinch points. Safety guards should be color-coded yellow to increase awareness. Signage and alarms/lights should be provided to alert employees when the conveyor system starts and stops. Conveyors should not block exit access aisles.

Cranes - Overhead cranes may be used to move certain commodities. If present, owners and operators should be familiar with the OSHA Standard 1910.179, Overhead and Gantry Cranes, which can be found at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9830.

Lockout/Tagout Procedures - Lockout/tagout procedures should be established to prevent the unintended startup of machinery/equipment during service and maintenance operations, for example, when repairing a conveyor. The OSHA standard for the control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout), codified at 29 CFR 1910.147, requires employers to develop an energy control program. The program should consist of procedures for shutting off and disabling machines and equipment whenever maintenance or service is performed. The program also requires worker training and follow-up to assure that procedures are being followed. The OSHA standard is available on the OSHA website at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9804.

Grinders - Bench and pedestal grinders should be provided with safety guards to cover the spindle, nut, and flange projection. Adjustable tongue guards on the top side of the grinder should be adjusted to within ¼ in (6.35 mm) of the wheel and work rests adjusted to within 1/8 in (3.175 mm) of the wheel. Portable right-angle grinders should be provided with a safety guard. PPE should be provided and used by workers when using bench grinders, right-angle grinders, and other hazardous tools/equipment.

Electrical - Equipment that is operated by electricity, or which has any electrical connections, should be effectively grounded, for example, by using ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) (especially in wet areas to limit the risk of shock or electrocution. Exposed electrical connections should be eliminated. Machines should have emergency stop buttons or stop bars to cut power. All electrical wiring should be checked periodically for cracking, fraying, or other defects. See the Property - Fire Exposure Controls section of this report for more information on electrical safety.

Compressed-Air Equipment - Employees should be trained on the safe use of compressed air and compressed-air equipment, such as tire filling chocks, and blow guns. Safety-relief valve(s) should be provided on the air compressor tanks and tested at regular intervals to assure safe operating conditions. The air tank drain valve should be opened frequently to prevent excessive accumulation of water, and the pressure controller and gauge should be maintained in good operating condition. Air hoses and connectors should be checked for damage before use. Damaged hose should be repaired or replaced. Flexible cords or plugs on electric motor-driven compressors should be periodically checked and replaced, if deteriorated.

Compressed air used for cleaning should be discouraged whenever possible; vacuum methods should be used where feasible. If compressed air is used for cleaning, the pressure should be reduced to 30 psi (206 kPa) when dead-ended, and effective chip guarding and PPE must be used. Workers should be instructed to not use compressed air to blow dirt from clothing or the body because it can enter the body through cuts or openings and cause serious harm.

Jacks and Lifting Devices - Support stands, service jacks, shop cranes, and other portable lifting devices should conform to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Safety Standard for Portable Automotive Lifting Devices, ASME PALD. Shop-made devices or accessories should not be used.

Lifting devices should be well-maintained and inspected for damage before use. Damaged equipment should not be used. Equipment should be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Devices should be capable of lifting or supporting the intended load.

Devices should be set on hard, level surfaces. Lifting surfaces should be free of oil, dirt, or other items that may cause slippage. When lifting or supporting vehicles, the device should be positioned under the vehicle manufacturer's recommended lift points, and other loads should be lifted or supported taking into account their center of gravity. Loads should be secured to maintain load stability. Work should not be performed under improperly supported vehicles or equipment.

Powered Industrial Trucks

General - Powered industrial trucks, such as forklifts, may be used to move various materials around the facility. Improper use of powered industrial trucks could result in injuries to the operator or other workers from falling loads or by overturning. The rated load capacity should be clearly marked on all trucks, and operators should never exceed the rated load. When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, OSHA requires that the load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shall be shut off, and brakes shall be set. Wheels shall be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline. OSHA standard, 1910.178, Powered Industrial Trucks, can be accessed at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9828.

Exhaust Gases and Fumes - Carbon monoxide emitted by powered industrial trucks should be monitored and controlled; battery-powered industrial trucks should be used whenever possible. If this is not feasible, propane- or diesel-powered industrial trucks should be properly tuned up or catalytic converters added to reduce carbon monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines. In addition, in closed environments, carbon monoxide alarms should be installed and air quality testing should be provided on a routine basis. Forklift operators exposed to diesel exhaust in the work environment may also be at risk for health problems. The composition of diesel exhaust varies depending on engine type, operating conditions, lubricating oil, and whether an emissions control system is present. Diesel exhaust can cause eye irritation and respiratory problems and has the potential to cause cancer. There is no OSHA standard for diesel exhaust.

Employee Training - Only trained and authorized workers should be allowed to operate powered industrial trucks, as required by the OSHA Powered Industrial Truck Standard 29 CFR 1910.178. Training should include classroom lecture, visual aids, hands-on driving skills evaluation, and equipment-specific training and should be documented with certificates of completion.

Backup Controls - Backup alarms should be installed on powered industrial trucks to help prevent struck-by or caught-between injuries. In noisy locations, flashing lights should be installed in place of or in addition to alarms. Trucks should be equipped with convex or panoramic rear-view mirrors to provide operators the best view possible.

Operator Protection - Forklift trucks should be provided with an overhead guard to protect the operator from falling materials. They should also be provided with a load backrest extension to support the load being lifted.

Maintenance - Routine inspections and preventative maintenance should be performed on all powered industrial trucks. Trucks found to be in need of repair should be removed from service until restored to a safe operating condition.

Battery Safety - Workers should be trained on how to safely handle and charge batteries. Appropriate PPE, such as eye and face protection, aprons, and gloves, should be worn when handling batteries. Workers should be instructed not to smoke or have open flames or sparks near a battery. When removing or installing a battery, workers should follow the vehicle maker's recommendations.

Battery-charging areas should be provided with local exhaust ventilation. Smoking should be prohibited in battery-charging areas. Strong acids, such as sulfuric acid, are used in batteries. To prevent injury, workers should wear protective clothing, such as rubber boots, a rubber apron, chemical goggles with face shields, and rubber gloves, to guard against chemical splashes and burns. When charging batteries, acid should be poured into water; water should not be poured into acid (this action may result in splattering of acid or an explosion).

Battery-charging and chemical-handling areas should be provided with emergency eyewash facilities and safety showers capable of providing at least a 15-minute flush of tepid running water. The latest American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard covering emergency eyewashes is ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014, American National Standard for Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment, published by the International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA). See Occupational Safety Report OS-92-118Emergency Eyewash Stations - Placement, and the most recent edition of the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 standard for more information.

Loading Docks - The loading dock area is very likely to be the most hazardous part of a company's operation when the combinations of hazards and activities that occur in this area are considered. For the lift truck operator, ramps and inclines, overhead obstructions, dissimilar surfaces that are often wet and slippery, poor lighting in trailers, other vehicular traffic, pedestrian traffic, restricted views, sheer drops, trailer creep, congested staging areas, and accumulations of empty containers, pallets, and debris are hazards that can all be present at the same time within a very confined area. While OSHA does require training of lift truck operators on these types of hazards, many operations fail in providing detailed hazard assessment, operational procedures, and day-to-day enforcement of safety issues. In addition, those employees who do not operate lift trucks are rarely trained on dock safety issues even though they share many of the same risks as the lift truck operators.

OSHA regulations require the use of wheel chocks or other vehicle-restraining devices when loading and unloading trucks and trailers. Depending on the surface conditions and type of chock being used, chocks can sometimes slip, thus reducing their effectiveness in preventing trailer movement. In addition, requiring people to walk in between trailers to set and remove the wheel chocks creates additional safety issues. Companies should consider chaining wheel chocks to the outside of their dock and putting up signs reminding the drivers to use them. A better approach may be to require the lift truck operators to verify the chocks are in place. Many dock designs do not provide visibility to the trailer wheels from inside the building. Windows, mirrors, and cameras can resolve this. Also, consider keeping spare chocks on hand, as chocks are often casualties of theft and snowplowing operations.

There are a great variety of alternative vehicle restraint systems available. One of the most popular is the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) bar-type restraint system. These systems incorporate a device that engages the ICC bar (rear impact guard) on the rear of the trailer preventing it from moving away from the dock. However, the ICC bar system may not work with damaged ICC bars, lift gates, and low-boy trailers.

Dock levelers provide a bridge to the trailer as well as a ramp to facilitate the transition in height from dock to trailer. Dock levelers are rated by weight capacity and by the service range (available height change above and below the dock). Dock levelers come in mechanical and hydraulic models. The mechanical models require the operator to pull a chain and then walk down on the leveler to engage it, while hydraulic models provide automatic functionality from push buttons usually mounted on the wall next to the dock door.

Mechanical levelers use a mechanical safety mechanism to prevent the dock from bottoming out if it disengages from the trailer floor, the side effect of this safety mechanism is that when you enter a trailer with a soft suspension, the main portion of the leveler will not always drop with the suspension, leaving only the hinged lip to make up for the height differential. Hydraulic levelers incorporate a hydraulic velocity fuse as a safety mechanism; this allows for full functionality of the leveler as the trailer height changes.

The advantages in using automatic dock equipment with electronic controls include the ability to incorporate all of the equipment into signaling devices. Signaling devices, such as signal lights, will let the lift truck operators know that the restraint mechanism and the dock leveler are properly engaged, signaling that it is now safe to enter the trailer, while at the same time signaling the truck driver that it is unsafe to pull away from the dock.

Additional information on powered industrial truck safety can be found at the following OSHA website links:

•        http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/pit/index.html

•        http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/poweredindustrialtrucks/index.html

Hand and Power Tools

Workers should be trained in the safe use of hand and power tools. Chisels, punches, and similar tools should be maintained in safe operating condition without worn or mushroomed heads. Wrenches should be maintained without worn or bent parts, and hammers should be without broken or cracked handles. Tool guards should be factory-installed and should not have been modified.

Power tools designed to have minimal vibration will be more comfortable to use and less likely to result in hand-arm vibration disease. Pads and gloves may provide relief from vibration, and administrative controls, such as work rotation and frequent breaks, may help reduce the potential for injury. For safety from electrical shock, rechargeable battery-powered tools are recommended.

Power-operated hand tools should be double-insulated or grounded. A power tool should not be raised or lowered by its electrical cord. Tools with frayed or worn electric cords should never be used. Extension cords should be protected against damage from traffic, sharp corners, and projections. Guards for portable power tools should not be removed. Belts, gears, shafts, or other moving parts of power tools should be guarded if there is any possibility that the worker may be exposed to the moving parts.

Pneumatic tools should be checked to ensure they are securely fastened to the air hose to prevent them from becoming disconnected. A short wire or positive locking device attaching the air hose to the tool should be used as an added safeguard.

All tools should be checked daily before use, and defective tools should be removed from service.

For additional information, see Occupational Safety Report OS-55-28 , Hand and Portable Power Tools Safety.

Noise

A noise control and hearing conservation program should be implemented to evaluate and control workplace noise levels in areas where high noise exposures exist. If noise levels cannot be reduced by engineering controls, PPE should be provided to workers exposed to high noise levels, such as when running large presses.

Approaches to noise control, which are determined, based on the noise monitoring results, include, but are not limited to, the following:

•     Implement and maintain a periodic maintenance program – ensure that the equipment is running to design specification and parts are secured tightly. This can assist in lowering noise levels.

•     Ensure that the covers to any enclosures around equipment, such as access doors, are kept closed when not in use.

•     Run noisy conveyors and other equipment at the lowest feasible speeds.

•     Consider the use of acoustic barriers to prevent spillover of noise into adjacent, less noisy areas.

•     If noise levels are high, considering limiting the amount of time an employee can spend working in a noisy area.

•     Use earplugs or earmuffs. If noise levels are particularly high, but earplugs and earmuffs may need to be worn simultaneously (called double-hearing protection), and worker time in the high noise areas may need to be restricted, even with the double-hearing protection.

•     Post signs in high noise areas requiring the use of hearing protection, and enforce the consistent use of hearing protection for employees, management, and visitors.

The OSHA Noise Standard, which is codified at 29 CFR1910.95, can be accessed at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9735. Additional information on noise can be accessed at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/noisehearingconservation/index.html.

Hazardous Substances

Truck drivers can be exposed to a variety of hazardous substances and agents, such as diesel exhaust, fuels, cleaning compounds, oils, and other substances. In addition to procedures for the use of chemicals, waste removal procedures should be established in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations. Chemically soiled materials and equipment should either be decontaminated or discarded in accordance with applicable regulations. Workers need to be advised to exercise good personal hygiene practices (e.g., frequent hand washing) when working with chemicals.

Employee exposure monitoring should be employed to evaluate exposures to determine what type of controls are needed, such as substitution of chemicals, use of local exhaust ventilation, improving work practices, maintaining good housekeeping, and using PPE.

Ventilation – The best way to control airborne emissions is to use local exhaust ventilation. Canopy hoods often have limited effectiveness because they are placed too far above the point of generation of vapors. The closer the hood or duct is to the point of contaminant generation, the more effective the ventilation will be in capturing the vapors. A professional ventilation engineer should be consulted for questions regarding the design of a ventilation system. General exhaust should be used to supplement local exhaust ventilation. All exhaust ventilation systems should be checked periodically to ensure that they are operating according to design specification. For example, holes in ducts or ventilation gates that are inadvertently closed can reduce the effectiveness of a local exhaust system. Air monitoring should also be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ventilation systems.

Housekeeping – Good housekeeping is needed to prevent the accumulation of contaminants on surfaces and floors. For example, due to movement in the area, settled dust or liquids can become airborne again, a process called re-entrainment. Housekeeping is also needed to keep surfaces clean of chemicals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - Occupational injuries and illnesses can be caused by exposure to harmful substances or the environment. Management should conduct a hazard assessment to determine what PPE should be worn. PPE, such as gloves, aprons, goggles with face shields, hearing protection, respirators, safety shoes, boots, head protection, etc., may be necessary to prevent worker injury. In addition, workers should be trained on the proper selection, use, and maintenance of PPE. Examples of PPE include safety shoes or boots with toe guards and slip-resistant soles to guard against slips and falls, and chemically-resistant gloves when handling cleaning compounds to prevent chemical irritation or burns.

The OSHA Standard for PPE may be accessed at www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9777. In addition to PPE, emergency eyewash stations should be provided.

For additional information, see Occupational Safety Reports OS-12-39, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Hazard AssessmentsOS-70-11Occupational Eye and Face Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), OS-70-13, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the Head, OS-70-14, Foot Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), OS-70-15, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the Hand, and OS-70-16, Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC).

OSHA Hazard Communication Program - A formal OSHA Hazard Communication Program should be established to control the handling of hazardous chemicals used by workers, as well as chemicals that might be encountered on a non-routine basis, such as leaking battery acid or fuel. If large chemical spills will be handled by employees, they must be trained on how to respond to these non-incidental spills. The program should include written procedures, hazardous materials inventory, SDSs, worker training, and container labeling. The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard can be accessed at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10099, and the OSHA Hazard Communication webpage can be accessed at http://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/index.html.

See News Report NR-2012-03-13, OSHA Revises Hazard Communication Standard: New Rule Adopts Elements of Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), for additional information.

Other Factors - Other factors to consider for protecting workers from hazardous chemicals include: (1) provide spill cleanup kits in accessible locations in areas where battery acid or fuel might be leaking; (2) develop and implement written spill control plans; (3) store chemicals in areas that are not subject to physical damage; (4) do not store heavy loads on top of small, chemical-holding containers; and (5) provide proper PPE for each chemical used. Fuels should be properly stored and refueling conducted outdoors.


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Florida Commercial Truck Insurance

Dump truck operators provide a specialized trucking service. They use specialty designed vehicles to transport bulk loose materials, such as sand, gravel, aggregate, or asphalt. Dump truck operators may also remove debris, trash, snow and ice, or other materials for disposal. Most dump truck operations are short haul operations; however, they may be interstate.

Examples of Dump Truck Insurance Florida we can cover:

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Motor Truck Cargo Insurance Florida

When your products are being shipped from manufacturer to marketplace, it is important to ensure they are fully protected from departure to arrival. Cargo insurance provides financial assistance should cargo be damaged or lost when travelling by land, sea or air. It can also limit a commercial operation’s exposure to liability resulting from the shipment of products.

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  • Flexible limits to meet all needs
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Commercial Truck Insurance Florida General Laibility

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida General Liability

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General Liability Commercial Truck Insurance Florida

On average there are over 10 million motor vehicle accidents in the US every year. The damages caused by these accidents cost upwards of $230 billion annually, or an average of $820 per person. Without the proper insurance in place, your clients can be exposed to costly repairs and litigation fees if involved in an accident. Excess Auto Coverage protects your clients against financial loss resulting from legal liability for automobile-related injuries to others or damage to property. Auto Liability Coverage has flexible limits to satisfy all needs and provides the additional primary liability necessary to meet the minimum attachment point for personal umbrella policies.

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Tow Truck Insurance Florida On-Hook

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Commercial Truck Insurance Florida On Hook Tow Trucks

Tow truck drivers are responsible for moving damaged or stalled vehicles safely and securely without causing any additional damage. If a customer’s vehicle is damaged by a collision, fire, theft, explosion or vandalism while under tow, towing operators can be held liable for replacement and repair costs. To protect operations, towing companies need the proper insurance to limit the exposures associated with hauling vehicles owned by customers or another party. On-Hook coverage provides coverage for your auto service clients who tow or haul vehicles.

Commercial Truck Insurance Florida Tow Truck Insurance Requirements Florida

  • Tow Trucks with a Gross Vehicle Weight of 40,000 or more must carry a minimum of $300,000 Combined Single Limit. This limit applies per occurrence.
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Primary Liability Insurance Truck Insurance Florida

The minimum amount of primary liability insurance is set by the FMSCA.

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of 10,000+ pounds:

  • $750,000–  Most trucks hauling most commodities are required to have a minimum of $750,000 of coverage. Many load brokers will require a minimum of $1,000,000.
  •  $1,000,000– Auto haulers need a minimum of $1,000,000 in coverage. One million in coverage is becoming an industry standard across other hauled commodities too.
  • $5,000,000– If you are hauling certain hazardous materials, you’ll need a minimum of $5,000,000 in coverage.

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of less than 10,000 pounds:

  • $300,000 (BI & PD) for general commodities except any materials listed below.
  • $5 Million (BI & PD) for any quantity of Class A or B explosives, for any quantity of Poison Gas (Poison A) or highway route-controlled quantity of radioactive materials.
Primary liabiilty Insurance for commercial trucks vs General Liability Insurance. These two coverages can sometime be confusing. Primary liability commercail insurance truck insurance covers:
  • What Primary Liability Insurance does not cover: Theft is not covered. Nor is your bodily injury or damage to your truck. If a slip and fall accident occurs at your place of business will be covered by a truckers general liability policy and not your primary liability insurance policy.
  • What does Primary Liability Insurance cover: Primary insurance is required to be in place to protect the public. Primary Insurance will be your main truck insurance coverage. This coverage will cover and pay for damage which result bodily injury and property damage to others cause by your truck while it is on the road.

Why work with JDW Truckers Insurance Brokers

Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers: We start with a positive attitude toward finding a solution to fit your goals and your standards. We realize insurance a section of the big puzzle, but an important one not to be overlooked. Our goal is to help you optimize your insurance coverage to suit your needs, fit your budget and help prevent gaps in your policy which could be very costly. We will work with you and your organization on all levels. 

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The Florida Commercial Truck Insurance industry for transportation can change without notice. What one insurance company may have offered yesterday might not be available today. And what is offered today might not be aavailable tomorrow.

Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Companies can and do in some cases completely stop offering truckers insurance in Florida. This just one of the benefits of working with JDW Truckers Insurance Brokers. Our agents study the truckers insurance offered in Florida. If we see changes in truckers insurance being offered. We alert our clients so they can be prepared.

As Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers will shop and compare coverages and rates from many different insurance companies for you. We do the leg work for you. Our agents will look at the standard (admitted) insurance markert first. They can and will look at the non admitted or excess and surplus market as well.

Our Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers will do the leg work for you.

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Commercial Truck Insurance Florida can seem complicated but it does not have to be this way. Our JDW Truckers Insurance Brokers are here to answer your questions concerning which may be the best truckers insurance for you.


Speak with one of our Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers today. We help you find the right Florida Commercial Truck Insurance at affordable truck insurance rates.


We offer our free consultation for single owner-operators to trucking fleets with hundreds of units.


JDW Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers are here to answer your questions. Offer you free quotes and earn your business.


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  • Please tell us the best time to call. For example: Right away. This afternoon after 5pm. In the morning at 9am. We will call you based upon your schedule. Just let us know.
  • Please give an overview of what uou are doing? What you may need? If you are unhappy about your current coverage, if you have a policy in place. The better overview of your needs will help our truckers insurance agents to respond faster and with the answers to your questions.

Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers

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Florida Commercial Insurance Brokers Joe D. Wells

Joe D. Wells

Lead Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Broker

Independent Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Agents

Working in the role of an independent insurance agent. We are able to search the standard markets through admitted insurance companies to see if you qualify to be insured in this market. This market may seem to have the lowest premiums at times, but they can be restrictive in nature, because the admitted carriers could have setup programs they not will deviate from  – There is little to no room for negotiating. But we always look. This will mainly depend on your industry and insurance history.

Independent Florida Commercial Truck Insurance Brokers

As Insurance Brokers we have the ability to go outside the standard markets, which in many cases give us more room to negotiate your insurance policy coverage and its premiums. Once we have established your goals. We advocate for you to find the correct coverage. We can, in many cases, create a bidding platform. One whereas the insurance companies make offers for your business. We work for you and not the insurance companies. Which insurance companies do we work with? As Insurance Brokers, we are not limited to who we can get you quotes from. We seek to find the insurance carries who have an appetite for your needs.

About Joe

Joe has a background in Capital Markets. He holds license in Commercial Property & Casualty, Inland Marine, Surety and is an Insurance Broker. He has also been trained in Cyber Risk Management and holds a Real Estate License.

Florida – Joe can trace his family back to the 1950’s in the Florida Keys.

South Carolina – Joe can trace his family back his his great great grandmother who was born in 1820.

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